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PROJECT



THE UNIVERSITY OF DODOMA




COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
SCHOOL OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

COURSE NAME: INTERVENTION FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN
COURSE CODE: SE 225
INSTRUCTOR: Mr. Mgonja. M.r
NATURE OF WORK: GROUP ASSIGNMENT

STUDENTS’ PARTICULARS
NO
NAME
REG; NO-
DEG;PROG
SEX
SIGN
1
YUSUF LUBISHA
T/UDOM/2015/02099
BED SPED
M

2
ELIAWERA AMAN,
T/UDOM/2014/07318
BED SPED
M

3
RADIER, JANE. JUSTINE
T/UDOM/2015/02060
BED SPED
F

4
PASCHAL BESTA
T/UDOM/2015/02055
BED SPED
F

5
MKUNDA, LEONARD. D
T/UDOM/2015/02016
BED SPED
M

6
RASHIDI, RAJABU
T/UDOM/2015/02063
BED SPED
M

7
JUMANNE HASSAN
T/UDOM/2015/01940
BED SPED
M

8
ATHUMANI, SAID. H
T/UDOM/2015/01883
BED SPED
M


Question:
Project on disadvantaged children at Iyumbu village.


TITLE
INTENSITY OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AT IYUMBU VILLAGE







TABLE OF CONTENT
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………..…...ii
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………..……iii
1.0.Introduction…………………………………………….…………………...…………………1

2.0.Background information……………………………………………..………..………………1
2.1. Worldwide…………………….…………………………..…………………………………1`
2.2. Africa…………………………………………………………………………………………5
2.3. Tanzania………………………………………….…………………..……………………….7
2.4. Dodoma (Iyumbu)……………………………………………….………….………………..9
3.0. Objectives…………………………………………………………………...………………12
3.1. General objectives………………………………………………………………….………..12
3.2. Specific Objective………………………………………………………………...…………12
4.0. Condition that put children at risk…………………………………………….…………….13
4.1. Child labour………………………………………………………..…………………..……13
4.2. Poverty…………………………………………………….………………………………..14
4.3. Poor social service………………………………….……………………………………….15
4.4. Early pregnancy……………………………..………………………………...…………….16
4.5. Polygamism…………………………………...……………………………...…….……….17
5.0. Stakeholders involvement………………….………………………………….…………….18
5.1. Community involvement……………………………………………………………………19
5.2. Schools………………………………………………………………………………………19
5.3. Government involvement……………………………………………...…………………….19
5.4. Nongovernment Organization………………………………………….……………………19
6.0. Recommendation………………………………………………………………...………….20
7.0. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….………….21
                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to pass our heartfelt thanks to the following people whose contribution lead to the production and success of this work, and without their support the production would have been impossible. These are none other than Mr. Robert (village chairman), Mr. & Mrs. Masaulwa and Mr. Kiseko (Head teacher at Iyumbu primary school). Our special thanks go to Mr. Mgonja M.R, (Course instructor). We may not remember them all but we are thankful though their names didn’t appear in this acknowledgement.
May God bless them all.
                                   TO GOD BE THE GLORY.




ABSTRACT
This project paper is divided into five parts, these parts includes, part one which comprises of introduction and background information about disadvantaged children worldwide, Africa, Tanzania and Dodoma specifically at Iyumbu village. Part two is objective of the project. Part three is about conditions accelerating to disadvantaged children. Part four is about stakeholders’ involvement and the last part is recommendations about disadvantaged children. Finally the paper has a recommendations and conclusion.


















PART ONE
                            1.0 INTRODUCTION
 Disadvantaged children refers to the social, cultural, spiritual, economic and emotional conditions which deprive a child leaving him or her unable to enjoy their rights, achieve the full potential all participate as full and equal members of the society, children who do not have a good living conditions, a good standard of education as standard housing, medical and education facilities and civil rights that are necessary for unequal position in the society (Batana, 2013).
Also the disadvantaged is a generic term for individuals or groups of people who: Face special problems such as physical or mental disability. Lack money or economic support. Are politically deemed to be without sufficient power or other means of influence (Leseman, 2002).

          2.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DISADVANTEGED CHILDREN
As the problem is concerned, there are many papers and reports which have discussed about the state and extent of the problem of disadvantage children in the world. But in this project different data have collected through various literature which discussed the problem concerning various aspects of disadvantage children, by looking five main areas which are worldwide, Africa, Tanzania and Dodoma especial in Iyumbu.  
           2.1 WORLD WIDE
According to UNICEF and WORLD BANK (2016), Children are more than twice as likely as adults to live in extreme poverty, according to a new analysis from the World Bank Group and UNICEF. Ending Extreme Poverty: A Focus on Children finds that in 2013 19.5 per cent of children in developing countries were living in households that survived on an average of US$1.90 a day or less per person, compared to just 9.2 per cent of adults.  Globally, almost 385 million children were living in extreme poverty.
Children are disproportionately affected, as they make up around a third of the population studied, but half of the extreme poor. The youngest children are the most at risk – with more than one-fifth of children under the age of five in the developing world living in extremely poor households.
“Children are not only more likely to be living in extreme poverty; the effects of poverty are most damaging to children.  They are the worst off of the worst off – and the youngest children are the worst off of all, because the deprivations they suffer affect the development of their bodies and their minds,” said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake. “It is shocking that half of all children in sub-Saharan Africa and one in five children in developing countries are growing up in extreme poverty.  This not only limits their futures, it drags down their societies.”
The new analysis comes on the heels of the release of the World Bank Group’s new flagship study, Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016: Taking on Inequality, which found that some 767 million people globally were living on less than $1.90 per day in 2013, half of them under the age of 18.
“The sheer number of children in extreme poverty points to a real need to invest specifically in the early years—in services such as pre-natal care for pregnant mothers, early childhood development programs, quality schooling, clean water, good sanitation, and universal health care,” said Ana Revenga, Senior Director, Poverty and Equity at the World Bank Group. “Improving these services, and ensuring that today’s children can access quality job opportunities when the time comes, is the only way to break the cycle of intergenerational poverty that is so widespread today.”
The global estimate of extreme child poverty is based on data from 89 countries, representing 83 per cent of the developing world’s population.
Sub-Saharan Africa has both the highest rates of children living in extreme poverty at just under 50 per cent, and the largest share of the world’s extremely poor children, at just over 50 per cent.  South Asia has the second highest share at nearly 36 per cent—with over 30 per cent of extremely poor children living in India alone. More than four out of five children in extreme poverty live in rural areas ( Prof. Grantham, 2007).
In addition, the report reveals that even at higher thresholds, poverty also affects children disproportionately.  About 45 per cent of children are living in households subsisting on less than $3.10 a day per person, compared with nearly 27 per cent of adults.
UNICEF and the World Bank Group are calling on governments to:
• Routinely measure child poverty at the national and subnational level and focus on children in national poverty reduction plans as part of efforts to end extreme poverty by 2030. 
• Strengthen child-sensitive social protection systems, including cash transfer programs that directly help poor families to pay for food, health care, education and other services that protect children from the impact of poverty and improve their chances of breaking the cycle in their own lives.   
• Prioritize investments in education, health, clean water, sanitation and infrastructure that benefit the poorest children, as well as those that help prevent people from falling back into poverty after setbacks like droughts, disease or economic instability.   
• Shape policy decisions so that economic growth benefits the poorest children. 
UNICEF and the World Bank Group are working with partners to interrupt cycles of poverty and to promote early childhood development - with programs ranging from cash transfers, to nutrition, healthcare and education.
In Europe, Children born into severe poverty are disproportionately exposed to factors that impede their psycho-motor development, socio-emotional growth and cognitive processes. When linked with deprived or neglectful family backgrounds and poorly educated parents, poverty becomes the single greatest barrier to educational achievement (Dash, 2007).
Comparable data on the access of children from disadvantaged backgrounds across the European countries are not available openly. Member States define disadvantage in different ways or else, as in several countries, do not collect disaggregated data on these children but are content to designate certain neighborhoods as priority education areas. In general, the counting of children from disadvantaged backgrounds takes place within the context of child poverty analyses and is based primarily on income based measures to the neglect of social, family and spatial indicators (Eurostat, 2012).
The Risks of Child Poverty 
Poverty puts many children in jeopardy the second their lives begin. Every year, 7.6 million children die before they even reach age 5, many from causes that can be prevented with proper immunizations, proper nutrition and adequate water and sanitation. 
Poverty also puts children at risk for exploitation through sex trafficking, child labor and early marriage. Children living in impoverished areas face increased danger of experiencing violence from armed conflict or even being recruited as child soldiers. 
The world’s children deserve better. Ending the cycle of poverty begins with investing in children, beginning with maternal health and continuing into early childhood and beyond.
 
Health Care and Nutrition
Measles, malaria and diarrhea are three of the biggest killers of children, yet all are preventable or treatable. More than 30 million children in the world are not immunized against treatable or preventable diseases. 1 in 5 children lack safe drinking water. 270 million children have no access to healthcare. Every day, almost 2,000 children die from diseases linked to unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation. More than 100 million children under age 5 are undernourished and underweight, which contributes to 45 percent of all infant deaths. More than 300 million children are chronically hungry, and more than 90 percent of these children suffer from long-term malnourishment and nutrient deficiency. Stunting affects 165 million children under 5 years old. That's one out of every four children in the world. Every day, 1,000 children are newly-infected with HIV, this is completely preventable. (Mchomvu, 2012)
Education
Children from the poorest households are three times more likely to be out of school than children from the richest households. 57 million children around the world are out of school — and the majority of these young people are girls. For every extra year of primary school, a girl’s wages increase on average 10 – 20 percent. Two out of five children in Sub-Saharan Africa will not finish primary school. Educated mothers tend to send their children to school, helping to break the cycle of poverty (Moss, 2010).
Exploitation                                                                                                                                    In the last decade, more than 2 million children have died as a direct result of armed conflict. Worldwide, hundreds of thousands of children are recruited to serve as child soldiers. It is estimated that 1.2 million children are trafficked each year. 168 million children ages 5-14 are engaged in child labor, with 85 million of them working in hazardous conditions. 39,000 girls become brides every day, facing increased risks for HIV infection, hunger and death through childbirth complications (Wood, 1997).

               2.2 DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN AFRICA
The state of many developing countries in Africa is no secret. Africa has been deadlocked in extreme poverty for an extended period of time. However, recent trends have shown that the poverty situation worldwide is slowly improving. Despite these various improvements, much more can be accomplished in the poverty-stricken continent of Africa. African children in particular are still mired in terrible situations, causing quite a predicament. While every life is worth saving in Africa, the lives of the children are crucial to the future of developing countries (Dr.Sawhill, 2008).
The issues have abundantly mounted to oppose healthy children in Africa. Lack of suitable food plays a major role. The world in general produces enough food to feed these children, yet they have no access to a consistent food supply. The key to eradicating the hunger crisis is providing an outlet for starving people in Africa and other poverty-stricken locations worldwide.
However, food is not the only major problem for African children. Other issues, such as slavery, armed forces participation, and the inability to prevent disease all stake a claim to the death toll of African children.
An estimated 200,000 children are sold into slavery yearly in Africa. This has become a major problem for developing countries–how can a country grow and learn if the children are routinely captured and used as slaves? Without any children learning and growing in a safe environment, the developing countries do not have much hope for a productive future, instead they are mired in the darkness that child slavery provides.
Not only is child slavery a major issue but children being forced to participate in the armed forces also causes another dilemma. An estimated 12,000 children are participating in the armed forces, further halting the advancement of African economies. The children are being trained and deployed in military situations instead of learning and cultivating the land, leaving fewer able bodies and even fewer educated people to grow and produce for their country.
Child participation in armed forces and slavery are major hindrances to furthering child development. However, the problem of disease also runs rampant among the children. Measles, malaria, and diarrhea are the three biggest killers of children, yet all three are preventable or treatable. Children lack access to proper treatments and vaccinations, resulting in deaths that could have been prevented. If these children could be immunized or properly treated, the number of deaths would exponentially drop.
The high mortality rate of children in Africa plays a significant role in the African poverty situation. The deaths related to child slavery, child participation in armed forces, and treatable diseases can be reversed. These problems can be solved; they require continued aid from outside help, but also a stand to fight for the lives of children. Without growing children, there is no growth for the future.


It’s unfathomable that of Africa’s nearly 128 million school-aged children, 17 million will never attend school. Perhaps even more shocking is the fact that another 37 million African children will learn so little while in they are in school that they will not be much better off than those kids who never attend school. As a consequence, the prognosis for Africa’s future economic growth and social development is poor.
These numbers come from the new Africa Learning Barometer created by the Center for Universal Education at Brookings. Our objective was to identify a baseline assessment of learning in Africa by using the existing data. Using data from regional examinations, such as Programme d’Analyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN (PASEC)and Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) , and national assessments of 4th or 5th grade school children, the barometer provides a picture of the state of learning for 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In each of these assessments, we identified a cutoff point at which school children scoring below that level were learning so little that they had no value added to their education. While these tests do not even begin to scratch the surface on the values, knowledge and skills that children should learn in school to live healthy, productive lives, they do provide some basic indications about the state of learning in the region.
The findings are astonishing. There are seven countries in which 40 percent or more of children do not meet a minimum standard of learning by grades 4 or 5. In countries such as Ethiopia, Nigeria and Zambia, over half of in-school school children are not learning basic skills by the end of primary school. Through the barometer we aggregate the total number of children not learning based on out-of-school children at the end of primary school, children who are likely to drop out by the 5th grade, and those in school but not learning. The results are distressing. Under the current model, half of sub-Saharan Africa’s total primary school population – 61 million children – will reach adolescence without the basic skills needed to lead successful and productive lives.
The barometer also points out the massive inequalities between the rich and poor. Looking at the rates of extreme education poverty in the region, the percentage of adults with less than two years of education show the disadvantages that poor, rural school children face in accessing education in comparison to their rich and urban counterparts. For instance, in Ethiopia, 68.3 percent of the poorest quintile of the population lives in education poverty, compared to only 13.8 percent of the richest.
While there is much reason to celebrate the progress in education that Africa has made over the past decade, the barometer shows us that there is a deeper learning crisis that needs to be addressed. Unless African governments and the international community work together and act now to raise standards and improve learning outcomes, the potential of tens of millions of African youth will be wasted and Africa’s social and economic progress will stagnate.
                      2.3 DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN TANZANIA
Around half of Tanzania’s population of 40 million are children under the age of 18 years. The analysis of childhood deprivation indicates that the incidence and impact of poverty on children is far greater than indicated by conventional income-consumption measures, especially in rural areas. Based on data from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2012, almost half of all children in rural Tanzania (48%) suffered three or more severe deprivations of basic need compared with 10% of children in urban areas. The incidence of severe deprivations among children was far higher on the Mainland than Zanzibar; approximately 41% of Mainland children suffered three or more severe deprivations compared with 19% of Zanzibar children. Deprivation was also associated with the wealth of the child’s household, underlining the need to measure and address child poverty more effectively. The vast majority (86%) of children in the lowest wealth quintile suffered three or more severe deprivations compared with less than 1% of children in the highest wealth quintile. In addition, the depth of poverty – the average number of severe deprivations experienced by children – varied inversely with the level of education attained by children’s mothers, underscoring the critical importance of investing in girls’ education to break the cycle of poverty over time and across generations. A promising, though slight, decline was recorded in the incidence of severe deprivation between 1999 and 2004/05, in large part due to the achievements of the Primary Education Development Programme. Circumstances for children in Zanzibar showed greater improvement than in Mainland Tanzania. However, even after adjusting the thresholds of severe deprivation to more closely reflect the national context, the analysis found that a majority of Tanzanian children were living in unacceptable and damaging conditions.
Child Survival – Health, Nutrition, HIV
Major gains in child survival have been achieved over the last decade and, if the pace of recent progress is sustained, the targets for reductions in infant and under-five mortality in MKUKUTA and MKUZA (2010) as well as the MDGs (2015) are within reach. Preventive measures such as measles vaccination and vitamin A supplementation campaigns have contributed, but there is little doubt that the significant fall in child mortality in the past five years is largely due to improved malaria control. However, there is no indication of any improvement in neonatal mortality, which accounts for nearly half of all infant deaths. Maternal mortality – which is intrinsically linked to neonatal mortality – has also remained exceptionally high, with no improvement in the 1990s. Despite progress in child survival, children are extremely vulnerable to shocks and stresses occasioned by poor living conditions, malnutrition and ill-health, and thousands of Tanzanian children succumb to preventable deaths every day. Child malnutrition, which indirectly accounts for between a third and a half of under five deaths, is still widespread. Dehydration caused by severe diarrhea also remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in Tanzania, with sound hygiene practices in households severely hampered by lack of access to clean and safe water. Mother-to child transmission remains the leading cause of HIV infection in children.

         2.4 DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN DODOMA REGION (IYUMBU VILLAGE)


Dodoma is among of the region in Tanzania in which most of its residents are poor and it among the poor region in Tanzania, due to the presence of unproductive land. The aim of undertaking the project was to shed light on the understanding exactly the disadvantaged children in Dodoma specifically Iyumbu village area.
Disadvantaged children in Dodoma face various problems in different areas like economically, socially and culturally. The terms of disadvantaged children identified the focus of the work to be an examination of the problems and the condition that put these children at the risk of becoming disadvantaged at Dodoma.
Mchomvu (2012) reported that, statistically Dodoma had about 6% of disadvantaged children compared to other region, this statistics taken in 2012 this composed of street children, HIV/AIDS infected children and the trend of children at risk of losing parental care in Dodoma was increasing due to the increase of HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.
Other critical issues influencing realization of disadvantaged children in Dodoma was water sanitation and hygiene, food security, nutrition status, children surviving under child headed household, abused and cannot access education, poor nutrition and inadequate food supply and survive under extreme poverty. There are also children surviving under elderly headed household who are also vulnerable.
Stakeholders in Iyumbu whose interviewed include parents, communities, NGO’s, schools and children themselves about the conditions that put those children at risk of becoming disadvantaged they responded that, all together other have lost their parents or are at the risk of losing parental care, other affected by HIV/AIDS, lack of water where they must walk a long distance to reach the well. This can be seen in Atkinson & Lugo (2010) who said that Dodoma especially rural areas there are big problems concerning with problems faced disadvantaged, TASAF has been working to the areas where there are some individuals with vulnerable groups they identified and provide them with services.
Government leaders, some elders some other people in Iyumbu explained about the problems which faced most people in Iyumbu are poverty, death of parents, divorce, diseases and lack of education are said to be serious problems facing disadvantaged children in Iyumbu, as the result most disadvantaged children in Iyumbu perform poorly in school, poor nutrition and remain poor economically.
According to the village chairman, head teacher, and Sharing Wealth in Tanzania (SWT) there are 127 disadvantaged children in Iyumbu village 66 of them are boys and 61 are girls, and those who are in school are 69, boys 31 and 38 are girls and those who are out of school 58, in there number boys are 35 and girls 23, in this number orphans are 49. Disadvantaged children in Iyumbu are being assisted by Sharing Wealth in Tanzania, TASAF assist only 15 school children at Iyumbu primary school. Also there are individual’s parents who provides supports to the disadvantaged children (orphans, street children and disabled). Both government and non-governmental organization provide a range of social services directly to vulnerable children.



Figure 01: A picture showing some of the disadvantaged children who are school children at Iyumbu primary school
Figure 02: A picture showing disadvantaged children who are not at school

The statistic of disadvantaged children in Iyumbu village can be illustrated in the following table


DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN
AT SCHOOL
OUT OF SCHOOL
boys
66
31
35
Girls
61
38
23
total
127
69
58

In this statics among of them 49 are poor orphans



3.0 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
v  3.1 General objective:                                                                                                                           To know the state and extent of disadvantaged children in global.

3.2 The specific objectives of the project.

a.       Know the state of disadvantaged children in Iyumbu village.
b.      Find out the extent to which parents and communities are aware of the need to care their children and protect them from abuse.
       c.   To understand how stakeholders are contributing in intervention for disadvantage children           in Iyumbu.

PART TWO:
4.0. CONDITIONS PUT CHILDREAN AT RISK
This condition also accelerates the rate of disadvantaged children, where by the child are taken to work in various activities. For instance domestic labor, pastoral activities and working in food venders. All of these are caused by excessive poverty in Iyumbu village and disadvantaged children are even subjected to various works while they are paid very low wages. For example one among of the interview, the researchers told that one child graze goats for the wage of one thousand per day. The money obtained used to buy food to be used by his parents at home. Child labour , most children at Iyumbu are not attending to school as they are engaging in various activities so as to earn money for their survival, because  they don’t have any support, many are involving in informal activities such as participating as cheap labors in National housing construction project. Others are involving in selling water, according to head teacher of Iyumbu primary school, many children are not attending to school and others have totally drop out from studies because they are engaging in various kind of activities which gave them money in short time.


 This is among the major problems which makes most of the children in Iyumbu becoming disadvantageous most of them they are at risk because of poverty for instant the first family which we had an interview live with one meal per day, most of children’s in Iyumbu suffer from this problem which hinder them to get basic services and needs which may lead them becoming disadvantageous. As we did our research we continue seeing most of children in the morning wake up and go to collect some fire woods which show that their families are poor because they cannot even afford any other sources of heat from there is when now children can have their meal. Also the dangerous environment where they collect this fire woods as they are still young they may even meet with dangerous animals in those environment and this may lead them at risk of becoming disadvantageous.  the economic status of majority in Iyumbu are living in severe poverty except to some few minority who are able to get their basic needs especially civil servants like teachers, village executive officer and agricultural extension officer, due to this many parents flee away from their family and abandon their children to their grandparents who are aged and they cannot afford to take care about the demands of their grandchildren. Many families they afford to have single meal per day and this make student to fail to engage well in studies and activities due hunger. And this it put children to be disadvantaged.


               4.3  POOR SOCIAL SERVICES

Poor social services is another condition, in that village there are poor social services like hospitals, schools, sources of water poor communication and transportation systems and this makes most of the children at risk of becoming disadvantageous. Most of the children in that area suffer from the problem of water, water is a part of life for most of living organisms now in that village we found children which are very young go very far from their home just to look for water and some of the water may be not safe at all so this makes them at risk of becoming disadvantageous. Not only the water systems but also hospital one respondent answer that they are used to treat their children at home because of poor health systems and this makes them to be at  risk. School is another problem most of the children at that area did not go to school on time and this makes them being at risk.

              4.4 EARLY PREGNANCIES

Early pregnancies are another issue, children lack parental guidance because of early pregnancies and this makes them to be at risk. As we conduct our research we found one family which children lack parental guidance because of their mother is young and still she is away from home living the children all alone and she went just to look for money to help her children.



                       4.5. POLYGAMISM
Polygamy is understood as a condition or practice of marriage to more than none spouse simultaneously. In Iyumbu village some of the men have married to more than one wife something which accelerate for them to have more children which they even fail to take care of them. As the Head teacher of Iyumbu primary school explained this situation he said that some of the families are living in very harder condition because of the high number of the children and this is due to the fact that the father of the family has more than wives finally the a head of the family who is a father flee away due to failure to take care of all of his children. This is a reason which lead to emergence of disadvantaged children in the streets because they find difficult to live at their home because there is nothing even to eat as their father is away or maybe he is present but he have failed totally to take the fully responsibility of the family.

PART FOUR

           5.1 COMMUNITY’S INVOLVEMENT

The community of Iyumbu has got no specific way of solving problems that are faced by the disadvantaged children. They have got no well-structured way of dealing with solving problems of disadvantaged children at Iyumbu. For Iyumbu community, the issue of disadvantaged children is not much considered as the one among of their priority activities, hence to them there is no specific way used to intervene the disadvantaged children.
According to the information provided by the village head teacher of Iyumbu primary school, shows that there is no way that suggested and structured by the community to intervene the disadvantaged children.
Few of them said that, there are few groups of Iyumbu community that provides some materials to which are needed by the disadvantaged children. An example religions group provides some clothes and foods to these disadvantaged children. Also some few individuals volunteer to help these disadvantaged children to provide them with food and health services.
For the problem of education to disadvantaged children of Iyumbu, also the community has got no clear way of solving the problem. The community of Iyumbu has got no clear way on how to make sure that all disadvantaged children get and complete their primary and secondary schools education as well.
During the interview between researchers and the citizens of Iyumbu, for them each family is supposed to take care for different needs of their children needs. Every family should make sure that all children are sent to schools, regard less that they are disadvantaged children or not.
Some of them said that, there are few cases of orphans children who are under the custodian of their grandfathers as well as grandmothers. So long these people are old; they cannot provide all the important requirements of these disadvantaged children.

            5.2 SCHOOLS’S INVOLVEMENT

Iyumbu village has got only one primary schools. The school has got no program of providing tea at 10;00am to the school children but the school children are allowed to go to their home for lunch. So the disadvantaged children school children experience difficulties on their studying due to fact that they have got hungry so this hinders their studies. Only standard seven school children are able to get one cup of porridge during 12:00pm, and that is a contribution provided by some of the parents who are willing to provide maize for porridge to the school children.
There are some dropouts at this school to some disadvantages children which is caused by hungry. It is not easy to them to proceed with school while they have got no food. According to them, the better way to them is to go into street and find some food to them.

               5.3 THE GOVERNMENT;

The central government through its governmental organization that is Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF). This organization helps to intervene some of families with disadvantaged children. Example a school head teacher of Iyumbu primary school said that about 15 school children are helped by this organization. Though the money are not enough to them, but they have got a greater importance to them. This is because they help them to buy some importance need such as foods and clothes.
The local Government of Iyumbu played an important role in collaboration with TASAF, to identify the families which are living with disadvantaged children. These are families with only one parent or those which are cared with old grandfathers or grandmothers. The street executive officer, the chairperson and the government all of these as a local government helped TASAF to identify these families.

5.4 Non-Government Organizations’;

At Iyumbu village, there is only one Non-Government Organization called Sharing Wealth Tanzania. This organization was established to help disadvantaged children found in Iyumbu. This organization provide helps children who at school and who are not enrolled at school, for the case of children who are at school are provided with exercise books, pens and soaps.


PART FIVE
6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
Villagers should put more efforts on education. Villagers are advised to invest in education, build schools from elementary school to the higher levels by the help of the government. Education helps a lot first to the problem of poverty second education helps children to get knowledge to cope with their environment. Most of the children are at risk of becoming disadvantageous just because they lack the knowledge not only to cope with the environment but also the knowledge of meeting their daily needs. Also they should assure that the quality of education is good so that the children can get quality of education that is measurable worldwide. They also have to improve opportunity that all children without regarding their age or any difference at all but they should give the education that is for all children in the village.
Reducing the number of early pregnancies to young girls; this can be achieved through providing awareness and counseling to the villagers. This should be done by Non-governmental organization, religious centers, private sectors and the public organization, all these should advice villagers to reduce the number of early pregnancies and the problem of single parent should be reduced. People lack the knowledge that is why the number of disadvantageous children keeps on increasing daily so this moral support will help the villagers to reduce the number of disadvantageous children. Also the villagers should be counseled on how to live with these children in case they are disadvantageous children in their village they should know how to live with them so that they can be productive not only for the village but also the nation at wide.
Government should make an effective improvement of social services like water supply, health services, education and other important services in the village. Water sources are the big problem in that village so most of the children are at risk of becoming disadvantageous just because of poor social services in that village. If the social services are improved most of the problems will be reduced and the children will be physical psychological and social fit.
Government should provide financial support and moral support to the families which are living under poverty, this will help to reduce the number of disadvantaged children. While these universal provisions are necessary conditions, particularly vulnerable children and households need additional support. Individuals who require special support may be identified through a combination of community and local government systems, with strengthened organized community groups to care for the most vulnerable Communities are now being asked to identify the most vulnerable children in the context of programs of support.
Polygamy should be prevented in the village; this is a very big problem which lead to increase of the street children who become disadvantaged children. So the villager leaders should make sure that all men who have poor economic capability in marriage issues to not marry more than one wife.

               7.0 CONCLUSION
As it can be observed in our project disadvantaged children in Dodoma specifically at Iyumbu village face various problems in different areas like economic, social and cultural aspects. As it can be examined disadvantaged children identified the work to be at risk by doing various tasks like child labor poor orphanage, poor housing and poor social services. Other critical issues influencing realization of disadvantaged children in Iyumbu is water sanitation and hygiene, food security, nutrition status, children surviving under child headed household, abused and cannot access education, poor nutrition and inadequate food supply and survive under extreme poverty. Therefore this problem should be addressed by government, community, non-government stake holders, school and all persons who are willing to help those vulnerable children.





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1 Comments

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