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INTRODUCTION TO CIVICS

What is civics?
Civics is the study of human rights and responsibilities of citizens, the governance and environment in which our society is found.
Therefore Civics can be discussed as a general study that speaks about everything surrounds human beings as well as leadership system that govern people. It speaks of internal and external affairs of the state including the history of human struggle as well as social, economic and political advancement and transformation in human history.
                 
       IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING CIVICS.
1.      To understand human rights e.g. rights to life associate with worship.
2.      To understand duties and responsibilities of citizens.
3.      To understand environment in which we live in.
4.      To promote peace and security in our society.
5.      To understand and up hold our culture
6.      To establish good relationship and respect.
7.      To understand road safety for example causes of road accident and measures to be taken in preventing road accident.  
OUR NATION  

When two people of the opposite sex get together as husband and wife, they form a family. A family is social group of people who are closely related to each other. A combination of various families forms a Clan. A group of different clans form tribes who have the same Culture, History and Language. The combination of various tribes makes up the population of a nation.
A Nation can be defined as alarge group or community of people living in a defined geographical area and sharing a common history, culture and language under one government. Examples of nations includeTanzania, Japan, Zimbabwe, India and Uganda. A nation should be recognized by other nations as a sovereign state andshould be free to decide and implement its own policies. It should not be part of another nation nor should it be under the control of another nation.

To be able to analyse the components that make up our nation
For any nation to be recognized as a nation it must have the following components: Sovereignty, People, culture, boundaries and government
Sovereignty
The word “Sovereignty” comes from the Latin word “superanus”, which means “supreme”. Therefore, Sovereignty refers tothe supreme power exercised by a nation to control all individuals and associations within its territory.
Sovereignty can also be defined as the highest power which belongs to the people. National sovereignty means that a nation is free to decide and implement its decisions without being interfered with by any external forces from other nations. A nation should be able to run its political, economic and social matters independently.
Importance of National sovereignty
  • National sovereignty is important because it maintains good relations with other nations through promoting good foreign policies on matters concerning other nations.
  • It helps maintain peace and security of a nation through execution of national laws, rules and regulations to prevent civil wars and conflicts with other nations.
  • It brings about national stability and encourages investors to invest in a country because a national is free to establish policies that will encourage local and foreign investors to invest in the country.
  • Citizens are free from being dominated by other nations because of non-interference in the control of the nation by other countries.
Hindrances to national sovereignty
  • Poverty. This is the inability to afford basic needs like food, shelter and clothing which is the main problem faced in many African countries whereby most are economically poor. This results in African countries depending on developed countries for help through grants and aid which create conditions that violate the sovereignty of some African countries.
  • Civil wars. The fighting between ethnic groups within the same nation can affect the freedom of the nation because when the nation fails to maintain peace and security within the nation, United Nations will intervene to protect human rights.
  • Natural hazards. Disasters such as floods, earthquakes and volcanic erruptions undermine the economies of poor countries which in turn hinders national sovereignty since the government cannot depend on its own capabilities and needs toask for assistance from other countries through aid.
Population
Population is the number of people living in a particular defined area. According to the 2010 population survey report, Tanzania has over 40 million people. More than 80% of Tanzania's population lives in rural areas. Tanzania mainland has over 125 ethnic groups. Kiswahili is the common language and the largest population group is Bantu who occupy approximately two-thirds of the country and are divided into many tribes. Within the population is where we can find leaders, citizens and the army which protects the country and builds up a strong nation.

Boundaries
National boundaries are the dividing lines between the area belonging to Tanzania and the area belonging to her neighboring countries. Tanzania was formed on the 26th April 1964. On that day, Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form thecountry currently known asTanzania. Our country Tanzania covers a total area of 945,202 square kilometersand is bordered by man-made and natural boundaries. Natural boundaries of Tanzania includethe Indian Ocean to the East, Mount Kilimanjaro to the North, Ruvuma River to the South, Lake Nyasa to the south west, and Lake Victoria to the North and Lake Tanganyika to the West.
Tanzania is bordered by eight nations, namely Kenya and Uganda to the North, Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo to the West, Mozambique to the South, Malawi and Zambia to the South West. The Indian Ocean borders Tanzanian’s Eastern side. The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba lie along the coast of Tanzania Mainland.
Map of Tanzania showing the national boundaries.
The Government
The government is an administrative organ of the state. It consists of elected and selected groups of people who are responsible for controlling and maintaining the laws and orders of acountry. The state has three organs which assist each other in fulfilling its functions. These organs are:
  1. The Executive.The Executive is the main branch of the central government andcomprises of the president, the cabinet, civil servants and armed forces. The Executive is responsible for administering various activities of the government.
  2. Judiciary. Thisorgan functions to interpret the laws and make rulings over disputes in the state.
  3. Legislature is the law making body of the state. It is the state organ whose members are elected to represent different constituencies. Some of them are appointed. Legislature is also called parliament and is comprised of the President and the National Assembly. The President is part of the parliament but not a member of the parliament. This is because the president does not participate in parliamentary discussions but participates in the process of making laws by signing the bills to become laws.
Culture
Refers to the customs and beliefs of a particular group of people. It also includes the people`s way of life and social organization.
Exercise 1
Answer the following questions
  1. In your own words, explain what you understand by the term Nation and give five examples of the nations you know apart from the examples given above.
  2. Suggest five solutions to protect national sovereignty.
  3. Draw the map of Tanzania and show its national boundaries.
  4. Why is the President of the United Republic of Tanzania said to be part of the parliament but not the member of it in the national assembly?
  5. List five national components.

The National Symbols
Tanzania's National Symbols
Identify Tanzania's national symbols
What is a national symbol?
A symbol is a sign that represents something. National symbols are signs which represent a nation. These symbols are very important as they serve as a reminder of our nationhood to us and to the rest of the world; they promote our culture and remind us about events that have taken place in our nation. Tanzania has several symbols; these include tangible things like money, flags and the coat of arms,as well asintangible things like the national anthem and language.
The following are the major national symbols in Tanzania:
  1. The national flag
  2. Presidential standard
  3. The coat of arms
  4. National Anthem
  5. Uhuru Torch
  6. National currency
  7. National Language
  8. The national Constitution
  9. National festivals (holidays) in Tanzania
The Significance of each National Symbol
Explain the significance of each national symbol
The national flag
A national flag is a piece of cloth with a special colour design. The national flag of Tanganyika was hoisted for the first time on the 9th December, 1961 and that of the United Republic of Tanzania was hoisted for the first time on the 26th April 1964, when Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form Tanzania. The main function of the national Flag is to show that Tanzania is a completely independent and sovereign nation. Our Flag has four colors; Green, Yellow, Black and Blue.
  1. Green represents the land and vegetation of Tanzania
  2. Blue represents the ocean and other water bodies found in the country
  3. Black represents the people of Tanzania
  4. Yellow represent the natural wealth of Tanzania, like minerals
Tanzanian’s national flag.
Importance of national flag
  1. It is a symbol of our independence/sovereignty
  2. It is a symbol of freedom and unity of the people
  3. The National flag is also a symbol of the nationality and a symbol of Tanzania culture
Presidential standard
The presidential standard is a flag which is used during official ceremonies where the president is in attendance. It has a green background with a blue and the coat of arms in the middle. The coat of arms on the presidential standard has no crops, human figure or the peak of Mount Kilimanjaro.
The Presidential standard
The coat of arms
The coat of arms is an official seal or stamp of the government which comprises different colors and landmarks of Tanzania. It act as national badge and, therefore, all government publications bear this official seal. Our coat of arms has twelve components. These components represent various national interests such as state power, economic bases, national culture and history.
Compositions of the coat of arms
The coat of arms comprises of the following things:
  1. Two human figures – The man and the woman represent the people of Tanzania. The two figures also symbolize the need for cooperation between men and women in order to bring about development.
  2. Two elephant tusks – These represent our national heritage in terms of wildlife. Tanzania has beautiful national parks and game reserves in which different animals and plants are found in their natural habitats.
  3. Shield and spears – They represent weapons that were used by Tanzanians to resist colonialism. These weapons represent the readiness of the people to defend their independence
  4. Golden band on the upper part of the shield - This represent the mineral wealth of the country
  5. Uhuru Torch – It symbolizes freedom, enlightenment, knowledge and prosperity.
  6. National Flag –It represent our sovereignty.
  7. Red band on the shield- this represent the fertile red soil found in our country
  8. Crossed Axe and hoe – These represent the tools which Tanzanians use to develop their country.
  9. Sea waves – These represent water bodies found in Tanzania. Approximately 62,000Km square of Tanzanian`s total area is made up of water bodies. This includes the Indian Ocean, rivers, lakes and swamps.
  10. Peak of mount Kilimanjaro- This is the highest mount in Tanzania and Africa in general which represents attractive geomorphological features.
  11. Crops (cotton and gloves) – At the feet of the man there is a branch of a glove tree. At the feet of the women there is the branch of cotton plant which stands for the cash crops produced in Tanzania.
  12. The wards “Uhuru na Umoja” which means freedom and unity express the belief that, Tanzanian`s strength depends on people`s solidarity.
Importance of the coat of arms
  1. It is used as the symbol of the authority and official government seal.
  2. It symbolizes our national culture and history.
  3. It symbolizes state power.
The national coat of arms
National Anthem
This is the official song which reflects people`s national feelings, desire, glory and pride in their nationality. The Tanzanian national anthem is sung during important national occasions such as when a special announcement is made by the president; when foreign heads of states visit our country; When the president or the vice president and the prime minister visit another country officially, and when our national teams are playing against teams of other countries; before and after the president addresses the nation; and when the national flag is hoisted.
Importance of the national anthem
  • It is a symbol of our nationality , freedom and it unifies Tanzanians
  • It makes citizens feel proud of their country
  • National anthem expresses a sense of belonging to Tanzania and Africa
  • It identifies Tanzania outside the country.
Uhuru Torch
This is the touch of freedom which also known as independence touch introduced by the first president of Tanzania Mwl. J.K.Nyerere as a symbol of freedom, unity, love, dignity, solidarity and hope among Tanzanians. It was first lit on top of Mount Kilimanjaro at midnight on 9th December 1961. This was the day Tanganyika got independence from Britain.
Importance of Uhuru Torch
  1. It symbolizes freedom and light
  2. It promotes unity in the country
  3. It also promotes peace, dignity, respect and hope among Tanzanians
  4. It promotes co-operation among Tanzanians and development in aspects of life
The Uhuru Torch
National currency
Is the system of money that a country uses. Our national currency is the Tanzanian shilling. Currency is also called money. Money is used for measuring value, trading and paying for goods and services in a country. Tanzania money is the form of notes and coins.
Importance of national currency
  1. It acts as a medium of exchange in trade transactions that is selling and buying of goods and services in the country
  2. It is used to measure value and identify the nationality and freedom of a nation
  3. It is the means of settling debts.
National Language
This is the language spoken by all the people within a country. The national language of Tanzania is Kiswahili.
Importance of the national language
  1. The national language acts as the media of communication within a county.
  2. It symbolizes the culture of the nation concerned which is Tanzania
  3. It unifies people with a common history.
  4. It also identifies the country internationally
The National Constitution
A national constitution is the system of laws and principles by which the nation is governed by. A constitution provides guidelines which society must follow. Our country Tanzania is ruled according to the constitution that was enacted 1977. Since that time year, it has been undergoing some amendments to suit the contemporary needs.
Importance of the national constitution
  1. The government rules by the will of the people through the constitution
  2. The constitution is the basic law from which all other laws are created.
  3. Under constitution there is separation of power between the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
  4. The constitution provides for elections through which the people elect their representatives in the government
  5. The constitution gives people the freedom to enjoy their right.
  6. The constitution provides individuals with the mechanism to claim their rights before the courts of law.
The cover of the constitution of Tanzania 1977
Tanzania's National Festivals and their Significance
Identify Tanzania's national festivals and their significance
National festivals are special public days created by the state which exempt people from doing any government or official work and therefore people are expected to rest. In Tanzania these days are called Public holidays.
Types of national days
Religious public days
These days are marked by special religious events or festivals according to the beliefs and faith of particular group of people. In Tanzania there are two dominant religious, namely Christianity and Islamic. The public holidays associated with these religious are;
  1. Christmas day - falls on 25th December each year
  2. Easter holiday – depends on Christian calendar
  3. Eid-el-Fitri and Eid –el-Haj – Depend on Islamic calendar and sighting of the moon
  4. Boxing day – Falls on 26th December each year
Political public holidays
These are special days that commemorate events which have profound meaning politically. Sometimes they are known as civic national festivals and holidays Political public holidays in Tanzania are;
  1. Independence day – falls on December 9th each year
  2. Union day – fall on 26th April each year
  3. NaneNane day – Falls on 8th August each year
  4. Zanzibar Revolution Day – falls on 12th January each year
  5. Nyerere Day – falls on 14th October each year
  6. Karume Day – falls on 7th April each year
  7. Sabasaba Day – falls on 7th July each year
Universal public days
These are special days for the rest and celebration for all people in the world. These universal holidays are;
  1. New Year – falls on 1st January each year
  2. Workers day/ labour day – falls on 1st May each year
Importance of national festivals/ public days
The followings are the Importance of national festivals/ public days;
  1. These days mark important events in our country
  2. The celebration keep the history alive since Tanzania are reminded of what has taken place in their country
  3. During these events leaders pass important information to the public
  4. Public celebration provides an opportunity for citizens to meet and share views, experience and knowledge.
  5. Celebrating together enhance the unity of Tanzanians.
  6. Annual celebrations impart on Tanzanians the culture of commemorating important national events.
  7. These events helps the leaders to identify problems in the society as citizens highlight their problems through speeches, posters, drama or songs.
Exercise 2
Answer the following questions
  • With examples mention three types of national festivals in Tanzania
  • When do farmers and traders exhibit their agriculture products, implements and machinery?
  • What are the importance of national constitution?
  • Mention any five compositions of the coat of arms and explain what each component represent.
  • Name various occasions you know where the national
  • anthem is always sung.
  • The Tanzania national flag has four colors:
  • Black represents ---------------------
  • Yellow represents -------------------
  • Blue represents ---------------------
  • Green represents --------------------
  • Why is it important to respect national symbols?
  • Mention three uses of coat of Arms
  • Why do you think it is important to have the union government of Tanzania and Zanzibar?
  • When the first constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania was written?





TOPIC 2: HUMAN RIGHTS

Meaning and aspects of human rights

Human rights are basic things that all human beings are entitled to and which nobody should interfere with. Such right includes life, ownership of property, education, marriage, health care and housing. Others are equality before the law, security, freedom of association, privacy and freedom of worship.

In most countries, human rights are based on universal declaration of human rights. They are also included in the constitutions of the countries as the bill of rights. The bill of rights shows the rights and freedoms that citizens have in their country. Freedom is the right to do or say what ones wants without being stopped by anyone.

The United Nations Universal Declaration of human rights

Aspects of human rights are defined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of human rights. This declaration was adapted and proclaimed by the general assembly of the United Nations on 10th December 1948. It has thirty points known as article. These points can be summarized into three categories as follows

1. Civil and political rights
These are rights to life, liberty, recognition, fair and public hearing by an independent tribunal, freedom of movement, freedom of thought, and freedom of assembly and freedom of expression.

2.Economic, social and cultural rights
These are rights to social security, work, equal pay, education, rest, leisure, and cultural life.

3.Environment and development rights
These are rights that people have to live in an environment that is cleaned and free from pollution. People also have a right to wealth and natural resources, self-determination and peace.

Right to equality
The constitution of Tanzania presents the right to equality in two parts as follows

(a)   Equality of all human beings – The constitution state that all human beings are born free and are equal. It also state that every person has right to recognition and respect.

(b)   Equality before the law – In this part, the constitution provide the people with the right to be treated fairly before the law and to be protected without any kind of discrimination.

Right to life
The constitution presents this right in four parts as explained below:

(a)   Right to live – The constitution states that every person has the right to live and have his or her life respected by the society according to the law.

(b)   Right to personal freedom – According to the constitution, everyone has the right to live as the free person, without being restricted by anyone else.

(c)   Right to privacy and personal security – According to the constitution, every person has right to be respected and protected and communicate without public attention.

(d)    Right to freedom of movement – Every citizen of Tanzania has a right to move in Tanzania and live in any part of Tanzania. A Tanzanian citizen also has the right to leave and enter the country.

Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression is presented in four parts as follows:

(a)   Freedom of expression – Every citizen has right to form opinions and to air those opinions. He or she is free to communicate without interference.

(b)   Right to freedom of religion – Every person has the right to belief of faith, freedom of thought and choice in matters of religion.

(c)   Freedom of association – Every citizen is free to assemble, associate and co-operate with other people. A Tanzanian citizen has the right to express views an join lawful associations or organizations.

(d)   Freedom to participate in public affairs – The constitution guarantees every citizen the right to take part of leadership matters, that is the right to elect or to be elected into public office.
A Tanzanian citizen has the right to participate fully in making decision on matters affecting him or her, his or her well-being or the nation.

Right to work
The right to work is presented in three parts. These are:
(a)   Right to work – The citizen has the right to work, to equal opportunity to work and to hold any office.
(b)   Right to own property – The constitution gives all citizens the right to own property and to have that property protected.
(c)    Right to just remuneration - Every citizen who works has a right to a just salary according to his or her work.
All the rights and freedoms that are guaranteed in the constitution have their limitation. Every citizen who enjoys these rights and freedoms must obey the law of the country. In exercising his or her rights, a citizen should also take into consideration the right of the others.

Importance of human rights
Most democratic societies have constitutions that contain the Bill of rights. The bill of rights consists of a list of rights and freedoms that are guaranteed in the constitution. These rights can be divided into three categories.

1.      Civil and political rights
These rights give the citizens liberty and equality. They allow the citizens to participate in the political life of their communities and societies.
(a)   The right to life – This right states that everyone has a right to live. It also disallows the death penalty for people below 18 years, pregnant women and insane people.
(b)   The right to equal protection by law – This right seeks to ensure law and law enforcing authorities treat all people equally.
(c)    Freedom of expression – This right helps to ensure that people are free to exchange their ideas and opinions.
(d)   Freedom of religion and conscience – This right ensures that no-one is punished or penalized in any way because he or she chooses one religion over another or opts for no religion at all.
(e)   Freedom of association – This is the right that ensures people are free to belong to organizations of their choice. It gives individuals the right to meet and interact with others whom they have common interests.

2.      Social and economic rights
These give people the opportunity to participate in social, economic and cultural life of their community or society. They are also concerned with the provision of basic needs such as food, health care and education. Social and economic rights are divided into the following categories.
(a)   Social rights – They include the freedom from discrimination on grounds of race, gender or religion; the right to marry and have a family; and the right to privacy, education, recreation and health care.
(b)   Economic rights – They include the right to work, housing, reasonable standard of living and pension.

3.      Environmental and developmental rights
Rights under this category seek to do the following:
(a)   Guarantee people the right to live in a free and safe environment that is the clean free from pollution and protected from destruction.
(b)   Give groups of people the right to have their culture recognized, or to advance themselves politically and economically.

Human rights and basic needs
Basic needs are things which are essential for survival. They include food shelter and clothing. Human rights are related to provision of basic needs. Social and cultural rights give people to participate in social, economic and cultural activities that help them to meet their basic needs. These activities
Include agriculture, business, manufacturing, employment and education. Human rights also enable people to work together as the member of society in order to improve their living conditions.

Promotion and protection of human right in Tanzania
Promotion of human rights
Promotion of human rights is done to encourage people to respect and value human rights. This is done in the following ways.
1.      The government promotes the human rights by recognizing and including them in the constitution.
2.      The government accepts and respects international obligations on human rights. Tanzania is a signatory to various international agreements on human rights.
3.      The government has set up the commission of human rights and good governance. This commission is given power to promote and protect human rights.
4.      The constitution of Tanzania allows the multiparty system of government in which people are free to join any political party of their choice. This promotes democracy and therefore freedom of expression.
5.      The courts have final say on legal matters.
6.      The government has allowed Non-governmental organization (NGOs) to operate the country. These help to promote human rights. The following are some of those organizations:
(a)   Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP)
(b)   Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA)
(c)    Tanzania Women Media Association (TAMWA)
(d)   Tanzania Human Rights and Democratic Development Centre (TAHUDE)
These and many other organizations work as pressure groups to promote human rights in the country.

Protection of human rights
Protection of human right means ensuring that human rights are not abused. Human rights should be protected and be respected for the following reason:
1.      They help to regulate and control power and action of government.
2.      They are the foundation of justice, peace and freedom.
3.      They promote democracy. This means the citizens’ wishes are respected by the government.
4.      They encourage people’s participation in economic, social, political and cultural activities.
5.      They bring about social equality and discourage any form of discrimination.
The following are the ways in which human rights are protected in Tanzania:
1.      The constitution includes a bill of right to protect human rights.
2.      The government educates the public about their civil right which are guaranteed in the constitution. It also practices the rule of law by setting up a system of checks and balance (such as law courts and the police force) to ensure that human rights are respected.
3.      Non-government organizations educate the public and put pressure on government to change oppressive laws.
4.       The press informs the public about violation of human rights.

Limitations of individual human rights
Human rights have limitations. There is no absolute freedom as all freedoms are within certain boundaries. In democratic society, such limitations should be reasonable, non-discriminatory and justifiable.
The main reason for setting boundaries within which human rights are exercised is to protect the interest of other persons. Everyone is free to join his or her rights but in so doing one should not interfere with the rights of others. For example, freedom of speech does not mean a person should insult others.
Other examples of limitations while exercising one’s right include:
(a)   Freedom of expression – If a person uses abusive language, he or she can be arrested. An individual’s right to freedom of speech does not mean one is allowed to incite or insult other people.
(b)   Freedom of assembly – This can be limited if an assembly is likely to harm other people.
(c)    Freedom of association – People who have bad intentions such as criminals cannot be allowed to associate with public as their action are likely to harm others.
(d)   Right to personal freedom – Just because one has the right to personal freedom does not mean he or she can do things that offend others such as walking naked.


Abuse of human rights
Abuse of human rights is the unlawful prevention of person’s enjoyment of his or her rights as outlined in the constitution.
Parents can abuse rights of their children by:
1.      Denying them education.
2.      Not providing basic needs such as food and clothing for their children.
3.      Forcing their children to marry against their wishes’ especially at a tender age.
4.      Giving their children severe punishment.
The society can abuse individuals’ rights through:
1.      Beating up and killing suspected criminals without giving them a fair trial in court of law.
2.      Abandoning children in the streets.
3.      Stigmatizing less fortunate members of the society such as disabled and people having HIV and AIDS.
The government can abuse human rights through:
1.      Making oppressive laws that limit the individuals’ rights.
2.      Discriminating against some citizens due to their color, gender, religion or ethnic origin.
3.      Not including Bill of right in the constitution.
4.      Not maintaining the rule of law.

Effects of human rights abuse
The following are some of the effects of abusing human rights in the society.
1.      Conflicts among family members and in the community. This leads to unrest and instability in the society.
2.      Conflicts between citizens and their government. This makes difficult for the government to enforce law and order.
3.      Citizens are unable   to perform their duties and their responsibilities in peace.
4.      Increase crime and poverty in the society.
5.      Oppression of the less fortunate members in the society, for example’ workers may be underpaid or the poor may be denied justice in the courts of law.
6.      Citizens are unable to obtain their basic needs when the right to work is denied or abused.

Differences between limitation and abuse of human rights
The difference between limitation of human rights and the abuse of human rights are listed in the table below.

Limitations
1.      Are done when there is need.
2.      Aim to protect the rights of others.
3.      Protects the rights of the disadvantaged group such as children, woman and disabled persons.
4.      Aim at making people free from fear of discrimination.
5.      Ensure peace and orders are maintained in the society.
6.      Intend to allow state organs to conduct lawful acts.
7.      Aim in ensuring court judgments are fair and just.
8.      Aim prohibiting the disclosure of confidential information.

Abuse
1.      Is done necessarily
2.      Used for selfish reasons, e.g. to keep unpopular rules in power.
3.      Does not protect the right of disadvantaged groups.
4.      Aims at making the citizens fearful of their rules.
5.      Aims at preventing some people from enjoying their rights.
6.      Intends to make people ignorant of their rights.
7.      Aims at discriminating some people in the court of law.
8.      Aims at withholding information in order to make people live in fear.

Ways to combat abuse of human rights
1.      The government has to maintain the rule of law. Where the rule of law is not being maintained, e.g. in countries at war, a lot of human rights abuses are experienced such as inability to get basic needs.
2.      The government should educate its citizens about their basic rights so that they can claim them when they are denied.
3.      The society has to respect all people, including the sick and the disadvantaged.
4.      The courts of law should enforce the law in a just manner and punish those who abuse the rights of others, such as thieves and murderers.
5.      There should be a system of controlling the activities of the government, e.g. the existence of parliament to prevent the misuse of power.
6.      The government has to transparent in its operations. Citizens should be kept informed about issues affecting them.
7.      All people should be treated fairly and equally before the law. No one should be discriminated against because of color, religion, gender or status in the society.

Chapter summary
Human rights are basic things that human beings are entitled to and which nobody should interfere with. Such rights include life, ownership of property, education, marriage, health care and housing. These rights are based on United Nations Universal Declaration of human rights. In our country, these rights are included in the constitution.
 These rights give the citizens liberty and equality. They allow the citizens to participate in the political life of their community or societies.
Basic needs are things which are essential for survival. They include food, shelter and clothing. Human rights are related to the provision of the basic needs.
Protection of human rights means ensuring that human rights are not abused.
The following are ways in which human rights are protected in Tanzania
1.      The Tanzania constitution include bill of rights.
2.      The government educates the public about their rights.
3.      Non-government organizations educate the public about their rights
4.      The press informs the government and the public about the violation of human rights.
Human rights have limitations. There is no absolute freedom. The main reason for setting boundaries within which human rights are exercised is to protect the interests of the other persons.
Abuse of human right is the prevention of a person from enjoying his or her rights as outlined in the constitution.
Effects of human right abuse include conflicts in the society, oppression of the less fortunate members of the society and increased crime and poverty.

 

TOPIC 2: CITIZENSHIP
Meaning, types and importance of citizen

Citizenship is the legal right of a person to belong to a particular country.

A citizen is a person who has the right to belong to a particular country. The condition that qualify a person to be a citizen are specified in a constitution of the country. A citizen of the country is expected to be loyal and patriotic to his or her country.

Types of citizenship
There are four types of citizenship in Tanzania. These are:
1.      Citizenship by birth
A person who is born in Tanzania by parents who are Tanzanians citizens is the citizen of Tanzania. This is citizenship by birth.
2.      Citizenship by neutralization
Non-citizens who wish to become Tanzanian citizens can apply to ministry of Home affairs for citizenship. After receiving the application, the ministry of Home affairs publishes a notice in the news paper bearing the photograph and name of applicant. The notice informs the general public of the application and asks if anyone objects to the applicant being granted citizenship. If there is no objections , the application is accepted and person is granted citizenship.
A person applying for citizenship in Tanzania must fulfill the following conditions:
(a)   He or she must be a person of good behavior
(b)   He or she must be lived in the country for at least five years.
(c)    He or she must be of 21 years or above.
(d)   He or she must renounce his or her former citizenship.

3.      Citizenship by descent
This applies to:
(a)   A child who is born in Tanzania, and one of his or her parents is a citizen of Tanzania
(b)   A person who is born in outside Tanzania and one of his or her parents is a citizen of Tanzania. However, such person has to apply to the Ministry of Home Affairs for confirmation of citizenship.

4.      Citizenship by marriage
A foreign woman who marries a citizen of Tanzania may register for citizenship.

Importance of citizenship
It is important to be a citizen of a country. The advantage of being a citizen includes the following:
1.      It enables a person to exercise his or her legal rights in the country.
2.      It allows a person to participate in civic activities such as voting.
3.      It enables a person to get services which are granted to citizens only. Such as service including freedom of education, scholarships and free medical services.
4.      A citizen has the right to participate in political and economic activities of the country.

Responsibilities of the citizen
Responsibilities are the things a person has to perform as a rule. A citizen has to do the certain things in the country in which he or she is a citizen. These are called civic responsibilities or re responsibilities of the citizen. Civic responsibility classified as follows:

1.      Personal responsibilities
A good citizen is the one who:
(a)   Takes care of himself or herself.
(b)   Behaves in civil or respectful manner.
(c)    Consider the rights and interests of others.
(d)   Support the family.
(e)   Accepts responsibility for his or her action.

2.      Economic responsibilities
A good citizen is obliged to:
(a)   Pay taxes and other statutory payments to the governments.
(b)   Do lawful productive work.
(c)    Participate in community development activities.

3.      Social responsibilities
A citizen must:
(a)   Protect his or her country from enemies.
(b)   Promote fairness, equality and social justice.
(c)    Respects the rights of fellow citizens.
(d)   Obey the law of the country in order for everyone to live in peace and harmony.

4.      Political responsibilities
A citizen has a responsibility to.
(a)   Participate in the country’s civic affair such as attending political meetings.
(b)   Take part in election.
(c)    Take part in building and consolidating democracy.
(d)   Help to develop public policy.
(e)   Advocate favorable policies and legislations.
(f)     Acquire and use information in order to make decisions.

Results of practicing civic responsibilities
The following are results of fulfilling civic responsibilities:
(a)   The rate of crime is reduced because people are busy carrying out their duties.
(b)   There is peace and harmony during political, social and economic activities.
(c)    The rights of people are respected because people do not interfere with each other’s rights. No citizen will enjoy his or her rights to the point of abusing the right of other citizens. One’s freedom ends when the other citizen’s freedom begins.

Responsibilities to special groups

Special groups are people who need special care for various reasons. Such people should not be neglected. They should be assisted when they cannot carry out their responsibilities and duties. The following are some of the special groups of the people and the way in which we can help them:

1.      The elderly
These are old people. As people age, they become less energetic and may not be able to work as well as young people. As the result, they cannot work effectively and earn their daily living. In addition, some disabilities such as poor eyesight and poor muscle control may be caused by old age. Elderly people therefore need special care.

2.      Street children
This is the group of the children who stay on the streets as they have no place to live. This could the result of various causes such as poverty, abuse by parents or guardians, death of parents and family break-ups. Due to these reasons children are forced to live on streets with neither parents nor guardians to take care of them. They usually have no permanent place to live in. in order to earn their living, street children may engage themselves in child labour and drug peddling.
In Tanzania, there are institutions which give such children life skills. Examples of such centres are Dogodogo centre in Dar es Salaam and Kuleana in Mwanza.
People who have the ability to assist street children should do so. One can assist by sponsoring their stay at the centre, giving them clothes and food or taking them to school.

3.      People living with HIV and AIDS
These are people who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus attacks the white blood cells that protect the human body from infection and disease.
Many HIV infected persons live in fear since the disease has no cure. However, to be infected with HIV does not mean one will die immediately. With support from the society and proper health practices, an infected person can live for many years and achieve most of his or her goals. Responsible citizens should support such people by providing them with love, food, clothes and medicine.

4.      Refugees
Refugees are people who flee their countries because of insecurity in their home countries. The following are some of the reasons for their forced migration:
1.      Political conflicts
2.      Civil wars
3.      Social conflicts
4.      Drought or famine
5.      Religious conflicts
6.      Economic problems
Refugees lack such things as education, food and proper housing. Their families are also separated. Tanzania has refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda. We can also help them by being kind to them and listening and talking to them.

5.      People with disabilities
This group includes people with mental disabilities, those with hearing and speech difficulties, the blind and physically disabled.
People with mental disabilities have below average intelligence. These people cannot perform routine activities effectively on their own. They often have emotional and behavioral problems. Such people tend to isolate themselves and are generally depressed. The deaf are people who have hearing problems. These people can carry out many activities which do not require hearing. They can communicate through sign language. Some people cannot speak. They also communicate through sign language. Blind people cannot see. They can be taught how to read using Braille.
Physically disabled persons have problems with particular limbs. The limbs may be missing or may not be functional. This hinders them from performing certain physical activities, such as working.
We should help people with disabilities to perform tasks. For example we can help the blind to cross the road. We can push the wheel chairs of those who can’t walk. We can also read to those who are blind.

6.      Women and children
This group is ignored in some communities. They are not given equal opportunities to participate in decision making in their families or at higher levels. In some communities, women are not given leadership positions. Some families do not allow girls to go to school. In village, women work hard in farms but they may have no right to plan how to use the farm products. In towns women are used prostitute or means of advertising products. The society need to assist this group of people to enjoy their rights. This can be done by giving them responsibilities, allowing girls to go to school and give them equal chances at education and at employment.

The needs of the special groups
People in the special groups need specific assistance. They need various things for a comfortable life just like everybody else. Some of their needs are outlined below:

1.      Old people require basic needs like clothes, shelter, health services, food, water, and general care. The community and relatives have a responsibility to take care of the elderly.

2.      Street children need education, health services, water, clothing, shelter, vocational training, counseling and protection. The government and the society must ensure that these children are in manner in which they become responsible citizens.

3.      People living with HIV/AIDS need love, counseling, a balanced diet, medicine and socialization.

4.      Refugees need education, food, health care, food and shelter, clothing and proper security.

5.      People with various disabilities need education, health care, food and shelter. They also need treated just like normal people and given equal opportunities such as employment.

6.      Woman and children need to be treated fairly and to be given equal opportunities in the societies. They need education to support their lives. They need to be allowed to exercise their legal rights and freedom such as freedom of expression. Women should be allowed to participate in economic activities without being harassed or intimidated by anyone.

Responsibilities toward special groups
The duties of a good citizen toward people with special needs include:
1.      Assisting these people by providing material and financial help.
2.      Interacting with them, at home and in community meetings, and allowing them to express their opinions and feelings.
3.      Showing them respect and understanding.
4.      Providing education to all depending on their special needs.
5.      Supporting them physically, for example when they are crossing roads.
6.      Providing counseling and socialization.

Chapter summary
Citizenship is the legal right of a person to belong to a particular country. A citizen is a person who has the right to belong to the particular country.
There are four types of citizenship in Tanzania. These are citizenship by birth, neutralization, descent, and marriage.
Responsibilities are the things that a person has to perform as the rule. A citizen has to do certain things in the country in which he or she is the citizen. These are called civic responsibilities, economic responsibilities, social responsibilities and political responsibilities.
Special groups are persons who need special care for various reasons. Such people should not be neglected. They should be assisted when they cannot carry out their responsibilities and duties.
Some of the special groups of people include the elderly, street children, people living with HIV and AIDS, refugees, and people with disabilities
People in the special group need specific assistance. They need various things for a comfortable life just like everybody else.
The duties of a good services toward people with special needs include assisting them materially and financially, interacting with them, showing them respect, providing them with education to them and providing counseling and socialization.

TOPIC 3: WORK

Meaning of work
Work is any lawful activity that a person does to earn living. People work to produce goods and services. It is the duty of every member of community to work. People must participate in activities that will improve their living standard as well as develop the nation.

Work related activities
Work related activities can be physical or mental. Member of society engage in activities according to their ability and knowledge.
The following are some of activities in which different people in the society engage in to produce goods and services.

Activities
1.      Farming
2.      Livestock keeping
3.      Fishing
4.      Mining
5.      Brick making
6.      Carpentry

Type of goods produced
1.      Crops, e.g. maize, rice and cassava.
2.      Livestock and their products, e.g. milk, skin and meat.
3.      Fish
4.      Minerals, e.g. gold, diamond and coal.
5.      Bricks.
6.      Furniture e.g. table, chair and desks.

Activities
1.      Banking
2.      Transportation
3.      Communication and information
4.      Health services
5.      Teaching
6.      Tourism
Type of service produced
1.      Financial transaction
2.      Transportation of goods and services
3.      Provision of education, entertainment and education
4.      Health care
5.      Provision of education
6.      Leisure

Importance of work

Work for self-development
1.      We get our basic needs from working. One must work in order to get food, clothes and shelter. Through work, one produces goods or provides a service. Goods are sold and services are paid for. The payment received enables the person to meet his or her basic and other needs.
2.      Work improves the economic position of the family and the nation as a whole.
3.      Works keeps people busy. They therefore do not have time to engage in criminal activities
4.       Works serves as the identity to the society. People know and depend on each other. They identify each others as the judge, carpenters, photographers and engineers, electricians, dentists, among others.
5.      Work brings respect. A person who works hard is normally respected in the society.
6.      Work makes people innovative. They come up with solution to existing problems as well as improve past method in doing things.

Work for national development
National development refers to the improvement in the life of people in the country. When the people in the country work hard, they increase the county’s production. This makes the economy grow. Work improves the life of people by producing goods and services that are needed by people to satisfy their needs.
The economic activities that the citizens engage in enable them to pay taxes to the government. Tax is the source of income in the government. It enables the government to provide social services such as health care, education and security. It also enables the government to engage in development projects such as building of roads and industries. A national cannot develop without these services from the government. Works is therefore very important if a country is to develop.

Chapter summary
Work is any lawful activity that a person does to earn a living. People work to produces goods and services. The following are some of activities which different people in the society engage to produce goods and services.

Activities
1.      Carpentry
2.      Transportation
3.      Livestock keeping
4.      Health services
5.      Teaching
6.      mining

Types of services and goods produced
1.      Furniture
2.      Transporting goods and people
3.      Meat, milk, skin.
4.      Health care
5.      Provision of education
6.      Mineral such as diamonds



TOPIC 4: FAMILY LIFE

family is a group of people who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption. A family is started when a man and a woman are united by marriage. Some of the reasons of getting married are companionship and to get children. Children are an important component of the family.

Courtship and marriage
Courtship is the period when two people carefully study and get to know one another before they get married. Courtship enables the two partners to understand each other and to each others’ family members. It is also an appropriate time for preparation of wedding.
Marriage is the union of man and woman as husband and wife. It is the formal and legal bond between man and woman. It is normally accompanied by a wedding ceremony.

Importance of courtship
Courtship is an important period before marriage because it helps a couple to:
1.      Develop self discipline – without self discipline an individual may be disqualified by the family of the potential husband and wife. He or she may also not for the challenges faced during marriage.
2.      Know each other – it gives two partners an opportunity to each other’s feelings, altitudes, expectation and other aspects of life before marriage. This helps to avoid unnecessary conflicts in the future.
3.      Preparation for marriage – marriage needs a lot of things to be done in advance. It does not only involve the two people who are getting married. Marriage also involves the couple’s of relatives, neighbors and friends. All these people needs time to make various arrangements. For the marriage.
4.      Show evidence of maturity – people who intended to get married must be mature enough to take care of the family they are due to start.
5.      Acquire property – courtship gives a couple time to acquire some basic requirements of life such as house and furniture.

Relationship between courtship and marriage
Courtship and marriage are closely related. This relationship can be seen in the following areas.
1.      Courtship is the foundation of good marriage as it gives the couple time to know each other well.
2.      The courtship period allows the couple to learn important life skills. For example during courtship one may learns how to love and understand his or her partner.
3.      It is during the courtship that the two partners decide to get married. This happens when the two are satisfied that they can live together.
4.      A good marriage needs the blessings of the parents, relatives and neighbors. It is during courtship that all these people can be brought together and know each other.

Early or premature marriages
The legal marriage in Tanzania is 18 years. Any marriage of person below that age is considered an early or premature marriage.

Customs and beliefs that encourage early marriages
Customs are habits    that are passed from one generation. They include greetings, punctuality and obedience. Such habits are accepted in a society in which they are practiced.
Beliefs are things that are thought to be true by a certain community. Different society has their customs and beliefs about marriage.

The following are some customs and beliefs that may encourage early marriage:

1.      Payment of bride price: Bride price is also known as dowry. It is a gift that is given to a bride or her parents by her future husband in consideration for marriage. The parents of a girl receive bride price in terms of cash, livestock or land. This can encourage early marriage because greedy parents may be tempted to marry off their young daughter to get wealth.

2.      Gender discrimination in education: this is where a boy is given a priority over a girl in term of education. Some parents have wrong beliefs that educating a girl is waste of time and money. This encourages early marriage because girls are forced to drop out of school in favor of their brothers. After leaving the school the next step is usually marriage.
3.      Traditional initiations: traditional practices such as initiation prepare a girl for marriage. This encourages early marriages because once a girl is initiated; she is considered a woman who is ready to start her own family.
4.      Inheritance: some communities do not allow a boy to inherit property if he is not married. This encourages some boy to enter early marriages as qualification to inherit property.
5.      Lack of education: some parents marry off their young daughter due to ignorance. They have not been enlightened on the danger of the practice.

Problems associated with early marriages
1.      Complication during delivery: early marriages are one of the causes of maternal and infant death in the society. This is because the body of a young girl is not physically matured to carry pregnancy to fullterm and deliver safely. The complication arriving during pregnancy and labour most often result death or permanent damage to the girl’s body.
2.      Prevention of young from continuing with their education: in some communities, girls are forcefully removed from school to be married off. This interferes with their education and their future plans.
3.      Increase in poverty: most couples that get marriage at young age do not have reliable means of getting income. It becomes difficult for them to take care of their children. This lead to the increased poverty in the society. The children may end up in the streets.
4.      Spread of HIV and AIDS: very young men and women may not be able to make correct decision on marital matters. They are at high risk of being infected with sexually transmitted diseases including HIV and AIDS.
5.      Breakdown of families: very young men and women may lack enough experience, knowledge and tolerance as far as family problems are concerned. They may not know how to settle their differences and sometimes minor problems may lead to separation and divorce.

Prevention of early marriages
1.      Education: the society should be educated on the dangers of the early marriages.
2.      Basic socio-cultural practices: society should abandon negative socio-cultural practices such as female circumcision and gender discrimination.
3.      Laws: the government should enact strict laws against early marriage and enforce the existing ones to discouraging parents from forcing their children to get married at an early age.
4.      Poverty alleviation: Poverty alleviation strategies should be strengthened. This will help in preventing the economic hardships which force poor parents to marry off their young girls in order to get bride price.

Foundation of the stable marriage
Stable marriage exists where the couple is united under the rule of marriage. Such a couple supports, loves and respects each other. A stable marriage is based on the following conditions

1.      Agreement: there must be an arrangement of marriage between the bride and the bridegroom. The two should also agree on what they expect to achieve in their marriage.
2.       Love: marriage partner must have affection for each other. Love is an important component of the stable marriage.
3.      Trust: the couple must trust each other. None of them should do things that are contrary to the expectation of the other.
4.      Tolerance and understanding: each partner should exercise tolerance toward the weaknesses of the other. It may not always be possible for to fully agree with the action of the other person but marriage partner should try to understand each other.
5.      Transparency: marriage partner should be open with each other. It is wrong to keep it secrets which may endanger the marriage.

Types of families
There are three common types of families. These are:

1.      Nuclear family: this is a family which consists of father mother and children.
2.      Extended family: this is a family which consists of father mother, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, cousins, and other relatives.
3.      Single-parent family: this is one-parent family. It consists of one parent and his or her children. Single-parent families may result from the death of one partner, divorce or getting children when one is not married.

The importance of family
A family plays an important role in the community. Some of the reason why the family is important includes:

1.      To foster co-operation in the society. Stable families are able to work together for national development.
2.      To bring up children who will be honest, trustworthy and responsible people in the society.
3.      By working together, families promote the development of the individual member
4.      Good families act as role models in the society. Children and the youth therefore have role models they can copy.
5.      Families provide the children with the opportunity to be hard workers so that in the future they can be productive citizens.
6.      The family is the unit through which children are taught the customs of their society.

Family stability
A stable family is the one in which peace, respect, love and good behavior are maintained. The essential needs of the family members are taken care of.

The following factors contribute to the family stability:
1.      Respects: this is the situation in which members of a family value each other. The children respect their parents other than their immediate family, e.g. elders, school worker and neighbors. When family members respect each other and other people, they harmony in the family. This creates stability in the family.
2.      Love: this enables family members to help each other and co-operate in all aspects of family matters. When there is love within the family, the stability of the family is enhanced.
3.      Good behavior: a family is the basis for good behavior in the society. The family becomes stable if its member has good behavior.
4.      Peace: a family should live in peace and avoid conflicts. Parents and children will be comfortable and will enjoy life when they are all on good terms.

Importance of family stability
Family stability is important not only to the family members, but also to community as well as the nation. The following are some of the ways in which family stability is important:

(i)                  Family members are able to fully participate in other social and economic activities. Children are able to concentrate in school and parents are able to concentrate at work.
(ii)                Family members are able to participate in communal activities such as cleaning up markets and planting trees.
(iii)               Peace in the country begins at the lowest level. Therefore, stability is the good basis for peace and stability within the country.
(iv)              Family stability ensures that members are engaged in positive habits and activities. This is therefore reduces incidences of drug abuse or crime.
(v)                Children from stable families are likely to want to start their own families in future, thereby ensuring the continuity of family as a unit.

Rights and responsibilities of family members

Rights
Rights are the things that one is allowed to do or that one is entitled. In the family as a unit, parents have their rights and the children have their rights. Some of the rights that parents are:

1.      Making family decision.
2.      Guiding and advising their children.
3.      Being respected by their children.
4.      Teaching their children community values.
Children in the family also have rights. These rights include:
1.      Expressing their opinions.
2.      Being treated equally without any kind of discrimination.
3.      Being registered after birth and being given names.
4.      Living with their parents.
5.      Rest and leisure.
6.      Getting basic and secondary needs like food, education and health care.
7.      To be protected from injury, abuse, economic exploitation and from other forms of harm.

Responsibilities
These are duties that a person is obligated to fulfill. Some parental responsibilities are:

1.      Making important decisions.
2.      Providing security for the family
3.      Ensuring discipline is maintained by their children.
4.      Providing family requirements such as food, clothes, shelter and education.
5.      Taking charge of day-to-day activities of the family.
6.      Loving and taking care of their children
7.      Arranging and organizing family activities such as cleanliness and preparation of meal.
8.      Counseling their children to be well behaved.

Responsibilities of children in the family include:
1.      Helping with domestic tasks.
2.      Respecting parents and elders.
3.      Taking care of their young brothers or young sisters.
4.      Obeying their parents and teachers.
5.      Going to school to learn.

Consequences of not carrying out responsibilities

The consequences of being irresponsible are:
1.      Family instability: children can acquire bad habits and create trouble in the family and in the society
2.      Conflicts: frequent misunderstandings may arise between members of the family.
3.      Family breakdown: a family may breakdown if there is frequent misunderstandings and quarrels.
4.      Street children: in the absence of peace and provision of family requirements, children will not stay at home. They will end up in the streets.
5.      Lack of basic needs: if parent do not work hard, children cannot get their basic needs as well as other needs. This lead to the poverty and lack of development in the nation.

Chapter summary
A family is the group of people who are related by blood, marriage or adoption. A family is started when a man and a woman are united by marriage.

Courtship is the period during which two people carefully study and get to know each other before they get married. Marriage is the union of man and woman as husband and wife. The importance of courtship is to:

1.      Develop self-discipline.
2.      Know each other.
3.      Prepare for marriage.
4.      Acquire property.
5.      Show evidence of maturity

Any marriage of a person below the age of 18 is considered an early or premature marriage. The following are some customs and beliefs that may encourage early marriage.

1.      Payment of bride-price.
2.      Gender discrimination in education.
3.      Traditional initiation.
4.      Inheritance.
5.      Lack of education.

Problems associated with early marriage include complication during delivery, prevention of young women from continuing with their education, increase in poverty, spread of HIV and AIDS and breakdown of families. There are three common types of families: nuclear family, extended family and single-parent family.





TOPIC 5: PROPER  BEHAVIOR  AND DECISION MAKING

Meaning and types of behavior
Behavior is the way a person does things in a particular situation. Given different situations, people may show qualities such as politeness, harshness, cruelty, co-operation, envy and arrogance.

A person’s behavior can change depending on his or her mood, place or person he or she is dealing with. For example:
(a)   Mood – when a person is happy, he or she behaves differently from the way he or she behaves when angry or sad.
(b)   Place – a student in a classroom behaves differently from he or she behaves in the play-ground.
(c)    Persons one is dealing with – a student behaves differently when dealing with fellow students or friends, from the way when dealing with teachers, parents, relatives or strangers.

There are two types of behavior. These are:
1.      Proper behavior, also known as good behavior.
2.      Improper behavior, also known as bad behavior.

Proper behavior
This is the behavior which is acceptable to the society. Example of such behaviors includes honesty, love, kindness, openness, obedience, sympathy and co-operation.

This type of behavior may originate from various areas in the society. These include:
1.      Parents – good parents guide their children toward proper behavior.
2.      Mass media – radio, television, news paper and other media have programmes or articles which teach people good behavior.
3.      Proper education – people who get proper formal as well as informal education usually have good behavior.
4.      Good friends – good friends guide and counsel each other so that they can behave properly.
5.      Religious teaching – people who follow proper religious teaching behave properly in the society.

Elements of proper behavior
1.      Respect for parents, relatives and other people.
2.      Use of proper language. This means not using abusive language or any word that make people angry.
3.      Taking part in community activities such as funerals, wedding and environmental conservation
4.      Proper dressing. This refers to the style of dressing which is socially acceptable.
5.      Working hard by spending time in the positive and productive way.
6.      Helping others where and when it is necessary.

Importance of behaving properly
Members of the society are encouraged to behave properly. The following are some of the benefits of proper behaving in the society:

1.      There is unity, peace and harmony in the society since there is respect among people.
2.      The members in the society are helpful and co-operate with each other.
3.      Everyone in the society is free to exercise rights and fulfill their responsibilities
4.      There is development and prosperity in the society as people work hard.

Improper behavior
This is behavior which is not acceptable in the society. Examples of improper behavior include:
(a)  Use of abusive language.
(b)  Prostitution.
(c)  Taking illicit drugs.
(d)  Laziness.
(e)  Fighting.
(f)   Stealing and robbery.
(g)  Causing trouble and disturbing the peace.
(h)  Disrespect for school rules.
(i)    Disrespect for parents, elders and relatives.
(j)    Arrogance that is, being rude because one feels that he or she more important than the others.
Improper behavior can be result of many factors. Some of these factors are:

1.      Lack of parental care and guide: some parents do not spend enough time with their children to know their problems. When a child lacks guidance from his or her parents he or she may develop bad habits.
2.      The mass media: television, radio, the internet and the news paper play a great role in changing people behavior, especially young people. Some of the programmes and article expose young people to violence, prostitution and other social evil young people may be tempted to copy what they see, hear and read in the mass media.
3.      Poverty: some people may be forced to engage in bad habits because of their poor economic status. They may steal or engage in prostitution to earn money.
4.      Drunkenness: drinking alcohol excessively can make some people lose control of his or her action resulting in improper behavior.
5.      Lack of proper education: education is an important tool in changing people’s behavior. Ignorance can lead to improper behavior.
6.      Friends: some friends are not good. They can lead one into bad habits like truancy, stealing, use of abusive language, drugs, prostitution and absenteeism from school.

Consequences of improper behavior
Improper behavior may result in bad consequences. Some of these are:

1.      Spreading of HIV and AIDS due to prostitution and sharing of needles for injection of drugs.
2.      Crime such as robbery and rape.
3.      Social problems such as drug abuse, homosexuality and corruption.
4.      Family problems such as lack of food, unwanted pregnancies and early marriages.
5.      Poverty, when people do not work and therefore do not produce wealth.
6.      Lawlessness in the society as people does not respect each other.

How to control improper behavior

Several measures can be taken to control improper behavior. Some of these measures are:
1.      Mass education on good behavior among member of the society.
2.      Parents need to be closer to their children and spend quality time with them, counseling and guiding them.
3.      People who belong in different faith should adhere to their religious teachings on good behavior.
4.      The government should enforce the existing to law to curb anti-social behavior.
5.      The importation of pornographic material should be banned.
6.      Schools and colleges should educate young people on how to behave properly in the society.
7.      The government should ensure all children get formal education. Parents should be encouraged to take their children to school.

Responsible decision-making
decision is the choice in which an individual makes after thinking through different option on a given situation. Decision-making is the one way of solving problems.
Responsible decision-making involve making a choice after carefully considering all option available and using a particular criteria to make the best choice.

Importance of responsible decision-making
Decision making is important for the following reasons:

1.      It leads to the effecting and implementation of undone tasks.
2.      It is the only way to make difficult and dangerous decisions.
3.      It builds a sense of commitment when members of the society are involved in making decision that affects them.
4.      It facilitates proper utilization of available resources.
5.      It ensures sense of equality. This is due to the equal participation of members in decision making.
6.      It ensures efficiency because member of the society make decision to issues that concern them.
7.      It creates the sense of collective responsibility in carrying out tasks and policies.
8.      It encourages a person to achieve what he or she has planned to do.

Skills needed to make responsible decisions
There are six steps that help a person to make good decisions. These are:

1.      Identifying the problem: problem here means the issue a person needs to make decision on. For example, a form one student scores low marks in civics.
2.      Listing the possible solution to the problem: at this stage the person collects information on possible solution solutions to his her problem. In our example the possible solution can be
(a)   To take part in group discussion
(b)   To increase the amount of time spent studying civics.
(c)    To get extra tuition from the teacher.
3.      Starting the criteria to use: at, this stage the person analyzes the principles to consider in selecting a particular solution. That means he or she thinks of advantages and disadvantages of each solution listed below.
4.      Evaluation: to evaluate is to form an opinion of something after a carefully consideration. In this case, the person forms an opinion on available alternatives in order to make decision. At this stage the stage the person compares the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution. In our example above, the student should consider the chances of success or failure in choosing one solution over the others listed. On basis of evaluation, a decision is made.
5.      Making decision: the person selects the best solution and act on it. In our example a student can decide to take part in group discussion.
6.      Checking the results: this means assessing the choice made to determine whether the decision that was made has worked to solve the problem. If the problem has not been solved, then the person goes over and list of possible solutions against and tries another alternative to see whether it works.

Chapter summary
Behavior is the way person does things in a particular situation. There are two types of behavior: proper behavior and improper behavior.
Responsible decision-making involves making a choice after a carefully considering all options available and using particular criteria to make best choice.
There are six steps that help a person to make a good decision. These are:
1.      Identifying the problem.
2.      Listing the possible solution to the problem.
3.      Starting the criteria use.
4.      Evaluation
5.      Making decision.
6.      Checking the results.

TOPIC 6: ROAD SAFETY

Meaning of signs
Roads are the hard surfaces built to travel on. There are three type of roads in Tanzania. These are earth roads, gravel roads and tarmac roads.
Many times we read or hear about road accidents. It is important that road users take care to avoid road accidents. Roads users are motorists, cyclists and pedestrians.
Road signs are also known as traffic signs. There are signs near the road that give information or instruction to road users.
There are three types of road signs. These are warning signs, order signs and information signs.
The warning and information given by these signs guides to directs the road users on how to uses the road safely.

Interpretations of road signs
Road signs carry messages to road users through symbols, shapes and colors.
Symbols
These are signs which give warnings, orders, information or direction and temporary conditions.

1.       Warnings
These signs warn the road users on dangerous or unusual condition ahead.
2.       Orders
These signs order the driver to follow the given directions.
3.       Information and direction
These signs give information to the road users

Shapes
The three types of roads signs are enclosed in different shapes. These shapes help road users to interpret the signs quickly.
Color
There are different colors which are used with road signs. Each color carries its own meaning to road users. Below are some colors used with road signs.

Color and its Meaning

1.       Red - Used for “stop”, “do not enter” and to show something wrong..
2.       Amber - Used for warnings.
3.       Green - Used for “go” and to give guidance and information.
4.       Blue - Used for signs that give information.

Importance of road signs
1.       They make users aware of what is ahead.
2.       They direct road users on what to do.
3.       They help to minimize accidents since the road users are guided to make the right moves.
4.       They help road users use the road safely.
If all road users obey the road signs, there will be fewer accidents.

Importance of obeying road signs
Failure to obey road signs results in road accidents.  Accidents claims life of people and animals. Property is also damaged resulting in losses to the owners. Sometimes motor vehicles are damaged beyond repair. People may get permanent injuries in the loss of their capacity to work and be productive treating the injured persons in hospital is expensive to the government and to the family concerned.

Some benefits of obeying road signs are:
1.       It prevents loss of life due to careless use of roads.
2.       It minimizes road accidents.
3.       It prevents damage to property.
4.       It cuts government and personal costs of treating the injured.
5.       It reduces traffic jams on the roads.

Causes of road accidents
The following are some causes of road accidents:
1.       Reckless drivers who drive without caring about other road users. Driving recklessly cause the driver to lose control of his or her vehicle.
2.       Lack of road safety education for the road users.
3.       Poor road conditions. Many roads have potholes which make driving difficult and unsafe.
4.       Some drivers do not put the triangle warning sign when their vehicle break down on the road, as the result other road users are not warned to be in good time about the stalled vehicle.
5.       Some vehicles are defective. They should be removed from the vehicle until they are repaired.
6.       Some drivers do not have valid driving licenses for the vehicle they drive. For example, a driver whose license is for class “C” (that is, for tractors) should not drive the passenger service vehicle unless he or she get the proper license.
7.       Some pedestrians do not obey road safety rules. They cross the road without paying attention to on-coming vehicles.
8.       Some drivers do not obey road signs.
9.       Some roads are narrow. If a vehicle has a mechanical problems and it is stalls in the middle of the road, it may cause accidents especially when the other vehicle are moving at high speed.
10.    Driving while drunk is also the cause of road accidents as the driver does not have full control on his or her senses. He or she cannot control the vehicle properly.
11.    Some vehicle owners overload the vehicle. This make difficult to steer the vehicle.

Consequences of road accidents
Accidents have negative effects on people and property. Some of the effects of road accidents are:
1.       Permanent disabilities.
2.       Human beings and livestock die due to severe injuries suffered during roads accidents.
3.       People lose their commodities when transporting them from one place to another
4.       Vehicles are damaged.
5.       The public and private lose productive workers due to death or disabilities resulting from road accidents.
6.       Large amount of money is spent in treating road accident victims and in the repairing or replacing damaged properties.
7.       Travelers are delayed when accident occur.
8.       Children become orphans when their parents die in accidents, resulting in a lot of suffering of children. Some of children end up as street children.

Prevention of road accidents
The police traffic records have given us a picture of problem of road accidents in Tanzania. Measures must be taken to prevent accidents in order to prevent such a distressing statistics in the future.
The following are some of the way of preventing road accidents:
1.       All road users must be given proper education on road safety so that they are careful when using the roads. This is the duty of government, all traffic control concerned and the society.
2.       Driving license should be issued to qualified people only.
3.       Roads must be maintained properly.
4.       Vehicle must be inspected before they are licensed to be driven on roads. Public service vehicles should be inspected regularly.
5.       Reckless and drunk drivers should be punished according to the law. Strictly laws that are properly laws that are properly enforced will discourage drivers from driving recklessly.
6.       Unqualified drivers should not drive.
7.        The disabled, children and the elders should be helped to cross roads.
8.       Vehicle owners must regularly service their vehicle to ensure they are roadworthy.
9.       Drivers who overload their vehicles must be punished according to the law.
10.    Road signs should be put on the roads.
11.    Defective motor vehicles must not be allowed on the roads.

Chapter summary
Roads are hard surfaces built for vehicle to travel on. There are three types of roads: earth roads, gravel roads, tarmac roads.
Road signs are signs near the road that give information or instruction to the road users.
Road signs carry massages for road users through symbols, shapes and colors.
The following are some causes of road accidents:
1.       Reckless driving.
2.       Lack of road safety education
3.       Poor road conditions
4.       Defective vehicles.
5.       Invalid driving licenses
6.       Some drivers do not obey road signs.

Accidents have negative effects on people and property. Some of the effects of road accidents are:
1.       Permanent disabilities.
2.       Vehicles are damaged.
3.       Travelers are delayed.
4.       Increased number of orphaned children.

The following are some ways of preventing road accidents:
1.       All users must be given proper education.
2.       Driving license should be issued to qualified people only.
3.       Vehicle must be inspected before they are licensed to be driven on the roads.
4.       Road signs should be put the roads





4 Comments

  1. Make it in pdf so as we can download

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  2. It's better if you allow us even to pay a certain amount of money so as you send us these notes

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  3. we need this notes lets us pay and give us

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  4. Where is the topic of life skills

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