A government is an organized body of persons who form the machinery of the state.
Is a system or an organization of ruling a county or a state.
It has set laws that are followed by citizens.
It is a body of persons running matters of state. The matters of state are being cared by three joined bodies which are:
o    Executive
o    Legislature
o    Judiciary
o    All three joint bodies are called branches (organs) of the state authority.
Types of Governments in the world.
1.       Republic: this type of government headed by a president who has executive powers. E.g. Tanzania.
2.       Monarch:  this type is under the king or queen, but it has the prime minister who oversees the daily business of the government. E.g. U. K, Japan e.t.c.
3.       Dictatorship: is headed by a single person or group of persons who come to power by force.
4.       Federation: formed when the authority of government is divided into a central government and the government of the units. E.g. U. S. A
5.       Democratic: is the type of government which people choose their leaders and have a say in what the government does. g. Tanzania.
6.       Union: this type of government is formed when two or more independent states decide to join and form a single government.
7.       Dominion: it is led by prime minister but it still recognizes the British Queen as their head of state. E. g. Canada.
Importance/ function of government
1.       Maintain peace
2.       Provide social services
3.       Enforces laws
4.       Promote national economy
5.       Makes law
6.       Maintain international relatives
7.       Punish law breakers
8.       Regulate international trade
1.       Is a system of basic laws by which a county is governed.
2.       Are the basic principles which are accepted by the people of a certain society in order to guide them.
Types of constitutions
1.       Written constitution
2.       Unwritten constitution
1.       Written constitutionis the one in which the fundamental principles and legal rules of the land have been put down in written document. E.g. U.S.A
Advantages of written constitution:
1.       Is simple, clear, precise and consistent.
2.       It can be readily consulted in case of doubt and disputes
3.       It is suitable for countries with fragile democracy.
Disadvantages of written constitution.
1.       Some written constitution are so detailed hence not easy to understand
2.       They tend to be rigid
3.       Takes long time to amend it.
2. Unwritten constitution: the fundamental principles and legal rules of the land have not been put down in a written form.
Advantages of unwritten constitution:
1.       Easy to amend it
2.       Is flexible and understandable to changing condition
Disadvantages of unwritten constitution:
1.       It is easy to be manipulated by those in power to the disadvantage of the citizens
2.       Not suitable for young nations.
The main pillars of constitution.
o    Popular sovereignty
o    Limited government
o    Separation of power
o    Checks and balances
o    Judicial reviews
Importance of constitution
1.       Describes the form of government
2.       Describes the structure of government
3.       Distributes power to the state organs
4.       Shows the relationship between the government and the governed.
5.       Shows the methods by which those who govern come into power.
6.       Shows the rights and responsibilities of the citizen.
How national constitutions are made
They are made in special meetings. These meetings are sometimes referred to as:
1.       Constituent assembles or constitutional conventions
2.       National constitutional conference referendum
These meetings are usually composed of representatives elected by the people of a county.  Sometimes they are made up by members of the organizations, veteran politicians, religious leaders, head of institutions who came together to negotiate and draft constitution.
Steps in making a democratic constitution.
For the democratic constitution to be made, the following have to be considered:
1.       Characteristics of the population i.e. homogeneous or diverse
2.       The economy tied to its geographic characteristics. E.g. agriculture etc.
3.       The history that has shaped the nations aspirations
4.       Whether neighboring nations are peaceful or at war, since they can’t be ignored.
How constitution is safeguarded
1.       By taking oath office- the president for example has to swear that he/she will safeguard the constitution.
2.       By appointing officials who can be dismissed if one doesn’t not abide by the constitution.
3.       By court trial to anyone found acting against the constitution and face appropriate action.
Constitutional process in Tanzania.
The first constitution of Tanganyika was written in 1961 under British supervision.  Late J.K Nyerere became a prime minister.
The second constitution was made on 9th December 1962.  It was made Tanganyika government to have final say in all matters foreign and domestic.  The president became the head of state and government.
In Zanzibar the first constitution was launched on 10th December 1963.  The Arab Sultan was made the head of state.
On 12th January 1964, the Sultanate government was over thrown and Sheikh Abeid.A. Karume became the president of Zanzibar.
On 26th April 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar united and the United Republic of Tanzania was born. Because of the union, a new intern constitution was launched in January 1965.
In 1965, the ruling political party (TANU) established one party state, the country’s constitution was changed to give legal effects.
On 5th February 1977, CCM was born after dissolving TANU and ASP.  Therefore the first permanent
In 1977, Zanzibar established the House of Representatives; therefore the constitution of Zanzibar was formed.
For the case of Zanzibar, again in 1984, a new constitution came after resignation of AboudJumbe, in the same year, the president’s term of office was reduced to 2.5 years.
On 1st July 1992, Tanzania reintroduced multiparty political system so the constitution was slightly changed.
Other changes of constitution were made in 1994, when the president of Zanzibar ceased to be the vice president of the United Republic of Tanzania, he just remained the president of Zanzibar.
Constitutional Amendments.
In Tanzania, constitutional amendments are done by the parliament of URT.  The decision to amend or not is reached by vote.  In some developed countries the democratic constitution amendments are done by a process called constitutional conference referendum. E.g. U.S.A, S. Africa, Germany.
Is a method of changing constitution through all the politically interested groups like religious institutions, civics society, political parties, business community and judiciary meet, debate and vote for changes.
The main provision of the constitution of Tanzania.
o    Is on the United Republic of Tanzania(URT), it has 3 sections, the first states clearly that the URT is a multiparty democratic state. It has two governments.
o    Is about the executive of the URT i.e. Union government. This has 3 sections. Section one spells out the power out, the power of the president and presidential election.
o    Section two is on vice president, his/her power and responsibilities and section 3 is about prime minister and cabinet.
Chapter 3
Is on the legislature it has several sections, one of them is about parliament powers and responsibilities; another section is about members of parliament, their constituents and election.
Chapter 4
Is about Zanzibar revolutionary government.Revolutionary council and the house of the representative of Zanzibar.
Chapter 5
It has several sections, one is about the high court of URT.  Another one is on the employment of magistrates and other officials in Tanzania mainland.
Chapter 6
Is about the parliament commission of inquiry and the leadership code.  It has 2 sections; one is on the permanent commission of inquiry and section two is on the secretarial of the leadership code.
Chapter 7
Have two sections about the finances of the two sections to be defined by the government of the URT.
Chapter 8
Is about the local government and their roles.
Chapter 9
Is about the armed forces.
Chapter 10
Is on general matter of the constitution.

Local government is the agent of central government which carries out functions within a specific area.
The central government has autonomy.  They form essential link between the people and the central government.  It is for this reason and other that local government should be allowed to run their own affairs without interference from central government.
1.       Linking the local community with the central government. The people make their needs known to the central government through local government.
2.       Making the best use of local resources e.g. food, water.
3.       Promoting democracy, councilors, have to be elected after every 5 years. The residents of each local government are to participate fully in electing the councilors.
4.       Passing by laws, whose application varies with the environment. This means that some by laws which apply in one district may be different from others.
1.       Village government
2.       District council
3.       Town council
4.       Municipal council
5.       City council
1.       Village Government
It is the smallest government unit.  It is made up of the village’s assembly and village council.  The adult population in the village forms village assembly. The village council is the executive arms to the Village assembly.  It has the power to see day to day activities of the village.
2.       District council
It has an area corresponding to that of government administrative district.  The council is composed of:
1.       Elected members, councilors
2.       Members elected by the minister responsible for the local government
3.       The members of parliament.
A district council is headed by the chairman who is assisted by the vice chairman.
3.       Town council
Includes those of Songea, Njombe, Lindi and Bukoba.  Each town council is composed of
1.       Members elected from each ward within the town.
2.       Members of the parliament representing the consistuency within the town.
3.       National members of parliament residing in the town.
4.       Five members appointed by the minister responsible for local government.
5.       This council is headed by a chairman who holds office for a term of five years.
6.       There is town director for each council. The town director is the secretary to the council but has no voting rights to any council meetings.  He is the chief executive.
4.       Municipal council
Municipalities are towns which have a population of area 80,000 residents each.  These include Dodoma, Iringa, Moshi, Morogoro as the members.  The council is headed by Mayor assisted by Deputy Mayor.  Both are elected by councilor’s director who is the chief executive and serves as secretary to the council.
5.       City council
The known cities in Tanzania are Dar Es Salaam, Mwanza, Tanga, Mbeya and Arusha.  However the government has recently recognized some regions to be cities.  Dar Es Salaam attained a city status in 1961 after Tanganyika independence.
Members of the city council consist of:
1.       Elected members. One from each ward in a city
2.       Members of parliament representing parliamentary consistence
3.       National members of parliament residing in the city
4.       Not more than six other members appointed by ministry responsible for local government. The city council is headed by the mayor who is assisted by the deputy mayor.  The chief executive of the city council is the director.

Functions of local government.
The local government is charged with two types of functions and general duties.
Mandatory functions and duties of local government are those which the government is required by law to discharge, these functions are:
1.       Social and economic welfare of all residents
2.       Maintenance of law and order
3.       Collection and proper utilization of revenue
4.       Making by-laws for the implementation
5.       National and local policies
6.       Consider, regulate and coordinate development.
Permissive functions are those which local government may perform depending on the needs and ability of resources mostly financial.
These functions include:
1.       Control and prescription e.g. Methods of husbandry on land.
2.       Building, equipping and letting shops and dwelling houses
3.       Establishment, maintenance, operation and control drainage, sewage.
4.       Charging fees for several services and licenses
5.       Building health centers and primary/secondary.

Local authorities need funds with which to pay their employee and carry out the various services they offer.
Local councils are empowered by the central government to raise revenue.
Various ways, depending to some extend on their status.
1.       Charges the council services e.g. refund collection and water supply.
2.       License fees- fees are charged for various license issued by the council.
3.       Rents- councils charge rents for the use of council property. E.g. council houses, market stalls, sports stadiums. t.c
4.       Government grants- the central government gives grants to local authorities for general expenditure and specific projects.

It is the national government.  It is concerned with the daily activities in the country.  The national government works through 3 organs.
o    Legislature
o    Executive
o    Judiciary
The functions of national government are carried out in 3 organs as mentioned above.
Is the highest council of the country.  The Tanzanian parliament is the national assembly.  It is one of the main branches of the government.  The members of the parliament are the members of the national assembly.
Types of parliament
There are 2 types of parliament all over the world.
1.       Bicameral parliament
2.       Unicameral parliament
1.       Unicameral parliament:It consists of a single legislative chamber e.g. Tanzania
1.       Bicameral parliament: it consists of two legislativechambers e.g. U.S.A or Britain
U.S.A – the senate and house of representative
Britain – House of lord and house of common
In Tanzania the president is not a member of national assembly but he is represented by the prime minister.  The president occasionallyaddresses the parliament.

Members of the parliament.  There are 5 categories:
1.       Members are elected to represent constituencies one from each constituency.
2.       Special groups. Being not less than 30% of the total elected by the political parties.
3.       Five members elected by the house of representative from Zanzibar
4.       Ten members appointed by president.
5.       Attorney general
The following are leaders of parliament:
1.       Speaker of the parliament- head of legislature
2.       Deputy speaker
3.       Clerk of parliament
4.       Two chairpersons

The following are functions of Tanzanian government:
1.To make laws of the county- Involves debating bills brought up by either the government of private members of parliament.
If the bills are agreed upon by the president, they become acts and hence part of laws.
2.To approve government budget
The parliament discusses the government budget and through to public accounts committee examines in detail the ways the funds are spent.
It debates the performance of each minister during the annual budget session of the national assembly.
3.To authorize any long or short term plans intended to be implemented in the United Republic of Tanzania. Members of parliament question members who present a plan clarification and information about the plan.
4.To rectify agreement or treaties to which the government is concerned. The parliament rectifies all treaties and agreements to which Tanzania is concerned and provisions which require rectification.
5.To oversee and advise the government and its organs. It is the principle organ in Tanzania which has the authority on behalf of the people to oversee and advise the government.
6.To train political leaders. The parliament serves as a training ground for future political leaders.

The national assembly works through different standing committees.  They are:
1.       Steering committee
2.       Financial and economic committee
3.       Political affair committee
4.       Public accounts
5.       General purposes committee
6.       Foreign affairs committee
7.       Defence and security committee
8.       Constitutional and legal affairs

The life of national assembly is 5 years starting on the date on which a new national assembly meets.

It is made up of:
o    National assembly
o    President

Steps of making laws in Tanzania
In Tanzania, laws are made by parliament.  The making of new law passes through several stages.
1.       First reading of the bill.
At this stage a bill is just proposed to the members of parliament.
2. Bills sent to parliamentary committee.
The speaker sends the bill to the parliamentary committee to be studied and analysed.
3. Second reading of the bill
The bill is published in the government 21 days before the next parliament.
4. Amendments to the bill by entire parliament
Following the parliamentary debates, the house sits as a committee then discusses the bill, section by section making amendments wherever necessary.
5. Third reading of the bill
If some amendments are made at stage (d) above, a third reading is made.  This is the last section of passing the bill in the houses.
6. The presidents assent to the bill.
Following the debates in the house, it is presented to the president for his assent. If assent is rejected, it is returned to the house.
After a bill is returned to the assembly, it cannot again be presented to the president for a period of 6 months except if it is supported by two third of all parliament members.
If a bill is returned to the assembly by the president and supported by two thirds of members and returned to the president, then the president must either assent the bill within 21 days or dissolve the parliament.

It is one of the three principle organs of the state.  It safeguards its people’s constitutional rights.
The main function of the judiciary:
1.       To make sure that the rule of law is maintained
2.       To ensure that justice is done to society therefore judges should be free to give justice.
3.       To make sure that the parliament does not erect any law which contradicts the constitution.
4.       To ensure that the executive part of the government does not violate the human rights. The judiciary is headed by CHIEF JUSTICE who is appointed by the president.
Under the chief justice are JUDGES and MAGISTRATES.  Whose duties are to see that the laws of land are respected and the law breakers are punished.

The principle judge and other judges of the High Court and Court of Appeal are appointed by the president after consultation with the judicial service commission.
Below the high court judges are the various grades of magistrates.  All magistrates are responsible to the judicial service commission.
Judges are appointed; they cannot be dismissed from office unless they are unable to perform their duties because of illness or misuse of office.
Therefore should be pruned by an INDEPENDENT COMMISSION OF JUDGES of another country preferably to common wealth countries.

This helps to guarantee the judges freedom from fear and intimidation which would impede the independence of the courts proclaimed in the constitution.

The judiciary is the collective name for the personal working in the legal system and the courts. The officials in the judicial system include:
o    Court clerks
o    Magistrates
o    Judges
State attorneys- who conduct state prosecutions and court assessors.

The judiciary is made up of
1.The ward tribunal- this is formed by an elected group of wise men of a ward or village to judicial minor cases.
2.Primary court
o    This is the lowest court
o    The head is primary court magistrate
o    They have a basic certificate in law
o    Advocates are not allowed to defend the accused.
3.District Magistrate court
o    This is the secondary level of the court system
o    Headed by a law degree holder
o    Advocates can serve the accused
4.Resident Magistrates court
o    This is the tertiary level of the judiciary system
o    Magistrates serving at this level are fist degree holders but have much experience
5.The High Court
o    This is served by judges
o    It has power to hear all types of cases including murder, high treason.
6.The Appeal Court (Court of Appeal)
o    This was established in 1979
o    This court only hears appeal cases forwarded to it by high court
o    Also a case may originate from primary court to reach appeal court.
o    This is ultimately the highest possible legal ladder a case may reach.
7.The Special Constitutional court
o    The court is not permanent
o    Have neither permanent judges nor buildings
o    This court is summed only when there is conflicting interpretations of the constitution between the two sides of the union e.g. Tanganyika and Zanzibar.

o    It is headed by the ATTORNEY GENERAL
o    He is the chief advisor to the government and is a cabinet member
o    He is a chief public prosecutor
o    As a chief public prosecutor he is responsible to lead government cases through the courts.
o    To appoint magistrates
o    To ensure that the system works as smoothly as can be.

The executive is made up of the Head of Government and the Cabinet Minister.  The executive branch puts law into practice through administration.  The executive is made of three parts:
o    The president- is a chief executive
o    The cabinet – composed of ministers
o    The civil service
Functions of executive
o    To enforce law
Done by police to law breakers
o    To defend the nation
Armed forces under Ministry of Defence
o    To provide social services
Through other Ministries
o    Regulate international dealings
Trades and diplomacy with other nations

The 3 groups of executive
1.       President
The president of the URT is the Head of State, the Head of Government and the Commander in Chief of the armed forces.  The president has executive powers.  He either exercises these powers directly or indirectly.

Functions and powers of president
1.       As a head of state
o    Represents his county at home and abroad
o    Signs treaties with other countries
o    Resides in the state house
o    Receives ambassadors from other countries
1.       As head of government
o    Has all power in the government
o    Appoints civil servants
o    Appoints ministers, judges, chief justice, prime ministers etc.
o    Appoints members of various commission
1.       As a commander in chief
o    Appoints commission officers in defence forces
o    Appoints and dismisses any URT members
o    Many declare a State of emergence
This can be done if:
1.       The nation is at war
2.       The nation is in danger of invasion
3.       There is actual breakdown of public order and safety
In case the president dies in office, the vice president takes the power for the remaining period before election.
The election of the President
The president of the URT is elected by people during election.
The union president candidate is elected if he gets single majority rates.
Qualifications of presidential candidate
o    He must be Tanzanian
o    The age of 40 years
o    A person is not elected more than twice.
The president assumes the office within 7 days after declaration of election.  And stays in the office for 5 years.

The Vice President
The V.P is the principle assistant to the president in all affairs of the URT.  He is elected with the president.  The V.P acts under the provision and guidance of the president.  President or V. P must be either from mainland or island.
Prime Minister
o    The P.M is appointed by the president and approved by the parliament.
o    The P.M must be the Member of Parliament.
o    He is the leader of government in national assembly
o    The P.M is responsible for control supervision and execution of daily government functions.
o    It provides basic structure of the government
o    The cabinet of URT consists of president, V.P and ministers
o    Deputy Ministersare not members of cabinet, but the president of Zanzibar is also a member of the cabinet.
o    The cabinet is principle advisory organ of the president.
o    Minister is a political head of ministry.
o    He has to answer all questions related to his ministry.
o    He represents the President at ministerial level.
o    Have powers to appoint board members of institutions under his ministry e.g. coffee board.
Every R.C is responsible for discharge of all the functions of the government of the United Republic within his regions.

The Civil service.
It is the part of the government that carries out the orders given by the minister and president.
At the top we have chief secretary who is the chief executive officer of the civil service, he is appointed by president.
The chief secretary is also secretary to the cabinet and principle secretary to the president.
All matters of:
o    Appointment
o    Promotion
o    Dismissal
o    Disciplinary control
Of civil service are regulated by the CIVIL SERVICE ACT and CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS.

The principle secretary of each ministry is the head of the ministry.  He is assisted by:
o    Commissioners
o    Directors of department
o    Heads of sections
Each department has its own organised body of trained workers.

A good civil servant needs technical skills, experience, efficiency secrecy and sense of responsibility.  He should be honest and impartial.
1.       Skills – is the level of education e.g. certificate and other qualifications.
2.       Experience – is obtained when one works for a long time.
3.       Efficiency – can be attained by skill and experience which will enable her/him to be quick.
4.       Secrecy – a servant must keep quiet about certain things in his work
5.       Responsibility –one must be able to be responsible for ones decisions.
6.       Honesty- is when a servant is always true to his deeds.

1.       Subordinate – simple mechanical routine work
2.       Clerical – work which is an application of well-defined regulations
3.       Executive – specialization in certain task
4.       Administrative duties- this is concerned with:
o    Formation of policy
o    Improvement of government machinery
o    Administration
o    Control of other civil servant
The army and police are not included in the government.

They include:
The main form is income tax.  It is paid by people employed by the government and private sector.
o    Monthly payments
o    Interest on investments
o    Profits from business
Other forms of direct tax

o    Property transfer taxes
o    Airport tax
o    Game parks
o    Museum fees
o    Fine from courts
These include imports and export duties of which are known as customs duties.  Import duties are for goods brought into the county while export is paid on all exports like tea, coffee, and sisal.
Excise duties are charged on locally manufactured goods which are sold and used in the country e.g. Beers, soaps, and cigarettes.
Is the sale of government bond and treasury bills to the public.  The government also borrows money from external sources such as:
Foreign government
Foreign institutions e.g. IMF, World Bank.
ADB- African development Bank.



























4.       GRANTS
These are external source of government revenue.   They are non- payable money given to the country by foreign governments.
The government obtains revenue by charging users for provision of services like water, electricity and medical treatment.
6.       LICENCES
Is when the government obtains income through selling licences to various individuals and companies for different activities from government departments.
The government own some parastatals fully while in others the government holds the majority shares.  As a result, the government receives a large share of the profits made by the parastatals.

There are 2 kinds of government expenditures
1.       Capital expenditures
2.       Recurrent expenditures.
1.       Capital expenditures – is expenditure on lasting or permanent assets. These assets add to a country’s capital and may be expected on time to pay for themselves. E.g. Roads, railways, school, hospitals and government offices.
1.       Recurrent expenditures- Is expenditure on running costs. E.g. buying text books, exercise books, medicines.
It keeps on being year after year.  It doesn’t only happen once, it recurs.
It is one of the 3 principle organs of the state.  It safeguards the people’s constitution rights.  Its main functions are:
1.       To make sure that rule of law is maintained
2.       To ensure that justice is done
3.       To make sure that parliament does not erect any law.
4.       To ensure that the executive part of the government does not violate the basic human rights provided for, in the constitution.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar formed a union by which URT was born.  The union occurred on 26th April 1964.  This union did not form a unitary state.  Zanzibar retained its own government.  The other side of the union i.e. Tanganyika has no government of its own.
Factors which precipitate the function of the union:
1.       The people of Tanganyika and Zanzibar originated from the same race.
2.       Geographical closeness
3.       Same historical background
4.       The two countries speak the same language
5.       Same culture
6.       The former political parties TANU and ASP had similar ideologies
7.       Friendship between the two presidents.
1.       Facilitates development in Tanzania
2.       Enables to share local resources
3.       Strengthens economic activities between the two
4.       Presumed to be the major step towards unity of Africa
1.       Very expensive to run
2.       Existing governments are debatable
3.       Zanzibar has separate House of Representatives while in mainland the national assembly there are MPs from Zanzibar
4.       There is confusion about presidents
5.       Poverty

Achievements of the union:
1.       It still exists
2.       There is peace on both sides
3.       Good relationship with other states
4.       Some union problems are solved peacefully
5.       Good social and economic welfare from government
According to the Article of Union which formed was formed between Tanganyika and Zanzibar.  The URT was formed by two governments.  These are:
o    The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania
o    The revolution Government of Zanzibar
The president of the revolution of Zanzibar has all powers in the affairs of Zanzibar except union matters and non-union matters to mainland.
According to the constitution, the following matters are placed under union government.
1.       The constitution and government of the United Republic
2.       External affairs
3.       Defence
4.       Police
5.       Emergency powers
6.       Citizenship
7.       Immigration
8.       External trade and borrowing
9.       Income tax cooperation tax and excise duties
10.   Financial matters, legal tenders, coins and bank currency
11.   Higher education
12.   Industrial licence and statistics
13.   Research
14.   Court of appeal of URT
15.   Registration of political parties
16.   National exam council of Tanzania and council related matters
17.   Aviation and air transport
18.   Petroleum and natural resources
19.   Statistics
Non-union matters:
1.       Health
2.       Judicial system
3.       Agriculture
4.       Primary, secondary and technical education
5.       Communication

Democracy is originated from a Greek word i.e. DEMO means people, CRATE means power.  Therefore it means PEOPLE’S POWER.
It is the system of government and leadership in which the supreme power belongs to the people.
Types of democracy:
There are 2 types of democracy
1.       Direct democracy (Pure)
2.       Indirect democracy (Representative)
1.       Direct democracy: it is the type of government whereby every free citizen participates in the discussion regarding their affairs. It is possible in small population.
Characteristics of direct democracy:
o    Allows highest level of participation
o    It works in a community where citizens have a consensual view of their goal
o    It is possible in societies with enough freedom to their decision
o    It is possible in societies relative homogeneity among its members e.g. cultures, values etc.

1.       Indirect democracy: it is a type of democracy where by different groups elects a person to represent them and given power to decide on their behalf.
It has its origins in Europe during the formation of capitation.
Characteristics of indirect democracy:
o    Citizens rule through their elected leaders
o    Elected leaders are installed and removed through constitutionally and periodically organised elections.
o    All adult citizens have rights to vote or be voted
o    Citizens have freedom of speech, opinions provided that they abide by rules of the land
o    There is separation of powers
Importance of democracy
o    People can choose their leaders
o    Citizens participate in making decisions
o    Allows high degree of tolerance
o    Allows freedom of criticism and transparency
o    Citizens participate in different community activities.
Disadvantages of democracy
o    It is noisy
o    It takes too long to make decisions
o    Sometimes the better candidate may not win due to competition
Elements of representative democracy
1.       Constitution
2.       Separation of powers
3.       Rule of law
4.       Multiparty system
5.       A bill of human rights
6.       Transparency
7.       Accountability
8.       Free and fair elections
9.       The process of voting should be peaceful
10.   Control of abuse of power
11.   Political tolerance
Is the form of government in which all powers rest in and is exercised by a single person or group of people.
Types of Dictatorship:
1.       Fascism: is the one where the political party is headed by the dictator, who holds all the powers
2.       Aristocracy: the one where few persons form and control the government.
3.       Authoritarianism: is where the government seeks no consent of the people.
4.       Totalitarian: where government controls all the activities of the people.
Characteristics of Dictatorship:
1.       They are the source of authority, laws and justice
2.       They employ police, army, preventive, detentions and prisons as a control organ of administration.
3.       They usually seize political power of the state by use of force
4.       They usually abuse their power
5.       They are responsible to no one and there is no rule of law
Election is the process by which people vote for the candidate of their choice.  A political election or democratic election gives people a chance to vote and decide who will lead them in future.
Election is said to be democratic, if they are held in an atmosphere where participants are tolerated and willing to listen to the political views of the opponents.
Democratic election is the election in which electoral law and rules are fair and equal for all contestants.

Factors that make elections democratic
The following are some of them:
1.       Campaigns and political meetings- where the candidates present their views, premises, programs and voters ask questions.
o    These views can be heard or read from electronic media or print area.
o    Campaigns should allow freedom of assembly and association. It also means that candidates, parties and voters should not be intimidated or threatened.
2.Equal opportunities to all parties
3.Equal access to mass media
4.Campaigns are on political and social issues
5.Abiding by an equal code of political parties

The Importance of Democratic Election
1.       Services as powerful means of transferring power from one person/group to another
2.       To choose good leaders. People vote because they need the best leaders who will make laws and by laws which determine day to day lives.
3.       Ensures equal opportunity to all parties
4.       Ensures good governance
5.       To make government responsible for its acts
6.       Used to decide matters
7.       Improve political system

Conditions and procedures to elections
Election procedures differs from one country to another, however certain principle characterize elections on many countries e.g. government elections are generally held at an interval of 5 years.
Conditions for voters and candidates in Tanzania
1.       Age must not be less than 18 years
2.       Mentally healthy
3.       Should not be in prison or has been imprisoned for the past 5 years
4.       People have to register themselves as voters
5.       He should be a Tanzanian
6.       Elections are by secret ballots
7.       Equal access to media

Presidential candidates
o    Citizen of Tanzania
o    Adult not less than 40 years
o    Member of political parties
o    There is a minimum standard
o    Person who proves his ability to lead the country democratically
o    Mentally fit

Parliamentary candidates must be
o    Adult not less than 21 years
o    Citizen of Tanzania
o    Member of registered political parties
o    Literate
o    Residents of the constituency in question
o    Mentally fit

It is a series of activities to win votes for a certain candidate, party or proposal.  In Tanzania, candidates are members of the political parties.

Campaign activities
1.       Parties choose their candidate and help them by providing publicity
2.       National leaders of each party makes speeches and policy documents
3.       Local branches of each party have campaign committees
4.       Volunteers distribute leaflets, prepare meetings and help call people for support
5.       Use of T.V and radio for campaigning
6.       On election days, voting is supervised by officials
Parliament and Presidential Elections
o    Are known as general elections. In Tanzania general elections are done after 5 years
o    For this election, one is decided a winner by simple majority votes
o    Elections are held to fill parliamentary seats which become vacant between general elections

When are parliamentary elections held?
Are held when any of the following take place
1.       Parliament is dissolved
2.       Members of the parliament resign
3.       Member of the parliament fail to discharge their duties
4.       Member of the parliament dies
Before elections, political parties and candidates are given a period of campaign

It organises and supervises the elections.  Include setting up of the electoral procedures and supervisors.

1.       Organise and supervise election of president, MPs and local authorities.
2.       Settle complaints
3.       Setup electoral procedures and supervisors
4.       Register political parties
5.       Supervise implementation of law
6.       Receive and audit annual account of political parties.

Is a social identity which refers to a person.State of being either a feminine or a masculine.
Gender relation
Are social relationships between men and women and the interaction that takes place between them within a particular social or cultural context.
Gender relations in any society influence the way male and female behave towards each other.  It also helps to explain the differences between man and woman, the roles they play and why they do so.
Gender roles:
o    Are formed by men and women in the society
o    Are influenced by time, geographical location, and development level
o    Are contextual and cultural specific andcannot be generalized
Types of gender roles:
1.       Women- production and reproduction includes child bearing, cooking, cleaning and food production.
2.       Men- production and reproduction includes hunting, protecting family, looking after cattle, building houses and food production.

Gender discrimination
Implies treating women unequally from men based on their gender e.g. refusing a qualified female engineer to supervise bridge construction simply because she is a woman.
Gender equality
o    Is part of human equality to UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
o    Refers to equal sharing of power and goods, resources between men and women in the society
o    Also equal participation in production distribution, services, right to own and control property.
o    Equal access to protection, healthcare, education, employment.
State of being male or female. It’s to great extent permanent universal and biological determination female or male.
Gender issues
Culture of people of Tanzania has a meaning only if reality of today and can help in construction of Tanzanians of tomorrow.  The report of the 4th world conference on women in Beijing highlighted the following areas of concern arising from cultural trends in Tanzania.
Gender disparity
1.       Majority of the girls and women are semi-literate, most parents don’t want to invest girls in education.
2.       Most women are poor because of economic policies have not been in favour also economic planning is gender blind.
3.       Cultural belief- women are readily affected by cultural belief in witchcraft, poor nutrition and ignorance about healthcare.
4.       Polygamy- this is also affecting women, polygamy which isn’t only among muslims but also Christians.
5.       Marriage- women are also affected by forced marriage of both women and girls.
6.       Teaching of initiation- it very often urges girls to be subservient to their future husbands.

Social-cultural practices that hinder equality between men and women in the society
1.       Payment of dowry/bride price
Dowry reduces women to the status of property.  The higher the bride price, the more the woman’s value.  Some women are treated as slaves because of low dowry.
2.Lack of education
In some societies parents are reluctant to send their daughters to school.  The assumption is that the girls are bound to be married sooner or later.
3.Basic customary laws
In most ethnic groups, women are regarded as inferior partners of men, which leads to denial of many basic rights to women.
4.Poor and insufficient diet
In some societies women are restricted to eat some food especially when they are pregnant.  This leads to malnourishment or undernourished women.
5.Excessive work
Most women work for at least 14 to 16 hours; they work for longer hours than men and engage in various activities.
6.Acceptance of the status of quo
Most women in our society have accepted their position of staying at home and want their husbands to bring everything so they regard themselves as junior partners.
7.Social expectation
Societies expect women to have children.  Bearing many children tends to weaken mothers.

Solution to curb negative socio-cultural practise in societies
1.       To eradicate laws
Eradication of customary laws in the society should be done through provision of education.  The customary law leads to deprival of many basic rights to women.  The societies should be educated on the disadvantages of customary laws on side of women, and then gradually they will stop it.
2.       To reduce the expectations of the status of women in the    Men should be made aware of the fact that the place of women isn’t necessarily in the homes.  Women should be encouraged to access themselves in the village district and national affairs.
3.       Equal access to education
Women should be educated just like men.  The negative opinions about women and their abilities must be changed from the family level.
4.       Placing women in responsible positions and influence them of their capability could be demonstrated clearly.
5.       Agricultural programs to address women. It has been argued that they are principle collectors and they are working for long periods of time in a day. Therefore agricultural programs must be addressed to women and men equally.  They should also seek to solve the women’s problems.
6.       Equal and direct access to socio economic activities. Both genders have to have equal access to various information and owning property, education and employment opportunities.  In most cases women get information indirectly through their husbands.  Women could be trained, educated and developed just like men.
7.       Enactment of laws which promote women’s rights
Laws have been passed to stop discrimination against women in Tanzania e.g. law on land ownership and marriage law.
8.       Elimination of local beliefs
Some local beliefs that hinder women to access some food which they are pregnant, should be erased in our society.
     Problem is something that is difficult to deal with or to understand.
Social problem are difficult that affect a community such as
  1. Violence
  2. Drug Abuse
  3. Conflict
  4. HIV/ AIDS
  5. Poverty
  6. In adequate health care
  7. Corruption
  8. Poor housing
  9. In adequate clean and safe water
  10. In adequate health care
   These are the way that a person or community deals with a difficult solution. They involve analyzing a problem to determine the best way of reading or ending it.
   They are related to decision making because they require to make a choice and act on it
Problem solving is usually done in steps one at a time.
These stapes are:
  1. Initiating mediation.
Mediation is the process of trying to end a disagreement between people or groups by talking to them and helping them find a suitable for all those involved.
The one who initiating mediation is known as the Mediator.
     ii)    Gathering information.
The mediator trying to find the root causes of the problem by asking questions.
     iii)   Define the problem
At this stage the disagreement is explained in order to know the problem. Knowing a problem is an important stage in solving the problem,Therefore it is advised that the mediator has to clearly understand and define the root cause of the problem .
     iv)   Generating alternatives.
This is a stage of coming up with many solutions to the problem.
       v)   Agreeing to a solution.
It is the stage of choosing the best alternative to solve the problem.
       vi)   Following through to see that the plan is carried outs.
This is the stage of implementing and testing the solution to see if it works.
Applying   problem   solving technique in difficult facing society help to.
1.) Bring a peace by resolving conflict between tribesmen of the community.
2.) Raise the living standard of the society. E.g. improving housing health services.
3)   Ensure fairly treatment of all members of the community’
4)     Put stop to vices such as drug abuse, child labour and prostitution
5)   Protect the environment e.g. By recycling plastic containers instead of throwing them a away or burning them



Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post