GET NOTES THROUGH WHATSAPP/EMAIL BY PAYING LITTLE AMOUNT OF MONEY, CONTACT US 0759146185/ 0622105865
BIOLOGY FORM THREE QUESTIONS AND SHORT ANSWERS
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Central Nervous System and their Functions
  ANSWERS:   Some parts and (functions) of the brain are: Cerebellum (concerned with long-term memory, co-ordination, etc); Cerebrum (controls emotions, hearing, vision, personality, etc); Medulla oblongata (controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heartbeat, etc); Spinal cord (transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body, controls numerous reflexes).

 
QUESTION:   
The Structures of Human Skeleton
  ANSWERS:   The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton, which is attached to the axial skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Movement in Animals and Plants
  ANSWERS:   Movement and locomotion actions are important to animals and plants because they enable the animals to (a) escape from danger; (b) move to better climatic conditions; (c) search for food; and (d) find mate. They also (e) aid in animal or insect pollination; and (f) enable plant shoots to move towards light and roots towards water and nutrient sources so as to carry out photosynthesis.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes Effects and Preventive Measures of Muscles Cramps
  ANSWERS:   Causes of muscle pain: muscle injury, dehydration, low Ca, K, Na, and Mg, and low blood supply. Also spinal nerve compression, alcoholism, pregnancy, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, or low thyroid gland function can cause muscle cramps. Effects: muscle pain, may interrupt sleep, or make it difficult to walk. Prevention: Ca, K and fluid intake, and stretching or warming up before exercise.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   There are 3 types of muscles: (1) Cardiac muscle – involuntary, striated muscle that forms the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium. (2) Skeletal (voluntary) muscle – occurs in muscles which are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibres known as tendons. (3) Smooth (involuntary/visceral) muscles located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement in Plants (Movement of Curvature)
  ANSWERS:   Generally, plants do not show locomotion (movement of the entire organism). However, movement of individual plant organs is possible, modified by sensitivity of the plant to external stimuli. Plant organs move toward scarce resource or otherwise secure food, or use movement as an adaptation to escape or minimize injury from harmful external factors, or ensure development.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropisms are growth responses of plants that result in curvatures of plant organs toward or away from certain stimuli. Important tropisms in plants include phototropism, gravitropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic responses are non-directional responses to the intensity of a stimulus. Nastic responses include thigmonasty, thermonasty, hydronasty, etiolation, and photonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropic and nastic responses allow plants to survive, grow, develop and reproduce. That is, they enable plants to anchor in the soil, absorb water and minerals, and expose leaves to sunlight for photosynthesis; and also help in plant support, enable the plant to survive by avoiding contact with harmful chemicals, trap and digest insects, and facilitate the fertilization process in flowering plants.

 
QUESTION:   
The Difference between Simple Reflex and Conditioned Reflex Action
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of Sense Organs and their Adaptive Features
  ANSWERS:   Some functions of the named sense organs are: SKIN (protection, sensation, excretion, storage of fat, synthesis of vitamin D, and body temperature regulation); EAR (hearing and maintaining balance and posture); EYES (vision); TONGUE (vital in tasting and chewing food and in speech); and NOSE (smelling and breathing). Each sense organ has adaptive structures which make it fit for its function(s).

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement and Locomotion
  ANSWERS:   Locomotion is the movement of an entire organism from one place to another. The locomotion of human or other animals is accomplished through walking, running, leaping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming. Movement only involves part of an organism’s body. Examples of movements include moving a hand, leg, head or any part of the body. Both movement and locomotion spend energy stored in the body.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Movement Exhibited by Plants
  ANSWERS:   Tropic movements are movements of curvature that respond to the direction of the external stimulus. Important tropisms include phototropism, geotropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic movements are plant movements independent of the direction of the external stimulus. Nastic movements include epinasty, hyponasty, hydronasty, nyctinasty, seismonasty, and thigmonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
Experiments to Investigate Movement in Plants
  ANSWERS:   Phototropism (cover a potted plant with a box and cut a small hole in the side of the box). Geotropism (uproot a health plant and lay it flat on soil for 5 days and keep irrigating the soil). Hydrotropisms (plant a seed some distance away from water source and observe the direction of root growth). Thigmotropism (fix a stick close to bean plant). Seismonasty (touch leaves mimosa pudica).

 
QUESTION:   
Process of Fertilization in Flowering Plants
  ANSWERS:   During growth of the pollen tube, the generative nucleus, behind the tube nucleus, divides by mitosis to produce 2 male haploid sperm nuclei. The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and penetrates the embryo sac wall. Then, the tip of the tube bursts open, the tube nucleus disintegrates, creating a passage for the male nuclei and what follows is called double fertilisation.

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of the Major Components of the Human Skeleton and their Adaptations
  ANSWERS:   The functions of skeleton are: (a) support (point for muscle attachment); (b) protection (skull protects brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage and breast bone protect the heart and lungs); (c) locomotion (skeleton as a lever system allows movement); (d) storage of minerals (Ca & P); (e) blood formation (red bone marrow produces red blood cells and phagocytes); (f) feeding.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  ANSWERS:   Some causes of drug abuse include misuse of medical drugs, peer pressure, and lack of life and social skills. Effects of drug abuse and addiction include dependency, mental confusion, heart failure, disruption of normal body functions, aggressiveness, crime and violence, spread of contagious diseases through sharing needles, misuse of money on drugs, body deterioration, birth defect, and death.

 
QUESTION:   
Advantages and Disadvantages of Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   Advantages of angiosperms: Human food; Livestock feed; Wood (for furniture, charcoal, paper); Textile (textile fibres); Medicine (medicinal herbs); Produce flowers for sale; Forestry (study); Ecology (animal habitats) Climate modification; and Ecotourism. Disadvantages: Toxins (some plants are poisonous when eaten by human and other animals). Drugs (misused as drugs); Weeds (some are bad weeds).

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of Division Coniferophyta: vascular; mostly evergreen trees and shrubs; xeromorphic; have secondary growth; reproduce sexually by seeds; world's tallest plants (1-100m); have alteration of generation; Distinctive features: their seeds are not enclosed in ovary, but in cones; have needle-like leaves with a thick cuticle; and they are non-flowering but seed bearing plants.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  ANSWERS:   Some causes of drug abuse include misuse of medical drugs, peer pressure, and lack of life and social skills. Effects of drug abuse and addiction include dependency, mental confusion, heart failure, disruption of normal body functions, aggressiveness, crime and violence, spread of contagious diseases through sharing needles, misuse of money on drugs, body deterioration, birth defect, and death.

 
QUESTION:   
Preventive and Control Measures of Drug Abuse
  ANSWERS:   Some preventive and control measures of drug abuse include: early detection and treatment of addicts, motivating addicts to make up for detoxification, inculcating good manners to youth, community education, enforcing laws and regulations against control and supply of drugs, educating pupils and students about effects of drugs, and using rehabilitated drug users as campaigners against drug abuse.

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Peripheral Nervous System and Their Functions
  ANSWERS:   PNS has two components: somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). The SNS carries sensory information from sensory organs to the CNS; controls voluntary body movements. The ANS regulates involuntary and unconscious actions. The ANS has two parts: sympathetic NS – activates the ‘fight or flight' response; and parasympathetic NS – calms and helps the body to conserve energy.

 
QUESTION:   
The Difference between Simple Reflex and Conditioned Reflex Action
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
The Classes of the Division Angiospermophyta and their Distinctive Features
  ANSWERS:   Distinctive features of class monocotyledonae: they have one seed leaf, leaf veins parallel, flower parts in threes or multiple of threes, vascular bundles scattered, no secondary growth, fibrous root system. Class dicotyledonae: have two seed leaves, leaf veins reticulated, flower parts in fours or fives or multiples thereof, vascular bundles arranged in a ring, secondary growth, tap root system.

 
QUESTION:   
Experiments to Investigate Movement in Plants
  ANSWERS:   Phototropism (cover a potted plant with a box and cut a small hole in the side of the box). Geotropism (uproot a health plant and lay it flat on soil for 5 days and keep irrigating the soil). Hydrotropisms (plant a seed some distance away from water source and observe the direction of root growth). Thigmotropism (fix a stick close to bean plant). Seismonasty (touch leaves mimosa pudica).

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Coordination in Organisms
  ANSWERS:   All living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. These changes are called stimuli (singular: stimulus). Examples of stimuli are light, heat, coldness, sound, smell, taste, touch, pressure, pain, water, and force of gravity, etc. The ability to perceive, interpret and respond to stimuli is called irritability or sensitivity.

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of Division Coniferophyta: vascular; mostly evergreen trees and shrubs; xeromorphic; have secondary growth; reproduce sexually by seeds; world's tallest plants (1-100m); have alteration of generation; Distinctive features: their seeds are not enclosed in ovary, but in cones; have needle-like leaves with a thick cuticle; and they are non-flowering but seed bearing plants.

 
QUESTION:   
Adaptations of Different Types of Muscles to their Roles
  ANSWERS:   Some adaptations of muscles are: (1) Cardiac muscles (have numerous mitochondria that supply energy; they are elastic, branched, striated, multinucleated, and have intercalated discs. (2) Smooth muscles (connected to autonomic nervous system; have many mitochondria and elastic myofibrils). (3) Skeletal muscles (they are multinucleated, have long cells and are striated).

 
QUESTION:   
Disorders of Hormonal Coordination in Mammals
  ANSWERS:   Some endocrine diseases and disorders of named glands include: pituitary gland (gigantism, dwarfism); thyroid gland (Grave's disease, cretinism, goitre, thyroid cancer); parathyroid gland (osteoporosis); adrenal gland (Addison’s disease, adrenal cancer, Cushing’s syndrome); pancreas (diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypoglycaemia); ovaries (ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts); and testes (hypogonadism).

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Movement Exhibited by Plants
  ANSWERS:   Tropic movements are movements of curvature that respond to the direction of the external stimulus. Important tropisms include phototropism, geotropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic movements are plant movements independent of the direction of the external stimulus. Nastic movements include epinasty, hyponasty, hydronasty, nyctinasty, seismonasty, and thigmonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of the Major Components of the Human Skeleton and their Adaptations
  ANSWERS:   The functions of skeleton are: (a) support (point for muscle attachment); (b) protection (skull protects brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage and breast bone protect the heart and lungs); (c) locomotion (skeleton as a lever system allows movement); (d) storage of minerals (Ca & P); (e) blood formation (red bone marrow produces red blood cells and phagocytes); (f) feeding.

 
QUESTION:   
How Muscles Facilitate Movement
  ANSWERS:   You will need to learn about the muscles of the body in order to understand how this system contributes to the overall design of the human body. The human body is composed of over 500 muscles working together to facilitate movement. Movement occurs when muscles contract or shorten, pulling the bones with them. Muscles work in pairs; when one shortens, the corresponding muscle lengthens.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement in Plants (Movement of Curvature)
  ANSWERS:   Generally, plants do not show locomotion (movement of the entire organism). However, movement of individual plant organs is possible, modified by sensitivity of the plant to external stimuli. Plant organs move toward scarce resource or otherwise secure food, or use movement as an adaptation to escape or minimize injury from harmful external factors, or ensure development.

 
QUESTION:   
Movement and Locomotion Actions
  ANSWERS:   The most visible activities that consume the stored energy in organisms are the movements and locomotion. These activities keep the organisms or parts of them in motion. Examples of locomotion actions include walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming using legs, wings, or fins. Movement actions include bending, squatting, shaking, kicking, speaking, or writing.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Representative Plants Under Each Class (Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae)
  ANSWERS:   Plants belonging to monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae can easily be distinguished from one another by their observable features. Such features include number of cotyledons, pollen structure, leaf veins, stem vascular arrangement, root development and structure, and whether a plant has or not secondary growth.

 
QUESTION:   
The Ways in Which Coordination is Brought About
  ANSWERS:   Coordination in both plants and animals is brought by hormones. Plants produce hormones, such as auxins, and respond to external stimuli e.g., light, touch, temperature, etc. In animals, the nervous system and sense organs also take part in coordination. The nervous system of an animal coordinates many activities in the body. Sense organs are sensitive to external stimuli such as sound and touch.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues are made of specialised cells. Skeletal muscle tissue cells are voluntary, striated, not branched, and multi-nucleated; cardiac muscle tissue cells are involuntary and intrinsically controlled, striated, branched, and singly nucleated; and smooth muscle tissue cells are involuntarily controlled, not striated, not branched, and singly nucleated.

 
QUESTION:   
Advantages and Disadvantages of Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   Advantages of angiosperms: Human food; Livestock feed; Wood (for furniture, charcoal, paper); Textile (textile fibres); Medicine (medicinal herbs); Produce flowers for sale; Forestry (study); Ecology (animal habitats) Climate modification; and Ecotourism. Disadvantages: Toxins (some plants are poisonous when eaten by human and other animals). Drugs (misused as drugs); Weeds (some are bad weeds).

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Pinus
  ANSWERS:   Pines are species of trees in the genus Pinus. Barks of most pines are thick and scaly. The branches are produced in regular whorls. A cross-section of pine stem has several concentric rings with distinct borders between each ring. They have needle-like leaves. The leaves are in bundles or clusters. They also have non-photosynthetic scale leaves. A cone contains the reproductive structures.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropisms are growth responses of plants that result in curvatures of plant organs toward or away from certain stimuli. Important tropisms in plants include phototropism, gravitropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic responses are non-directional responses to the intensity of a stimulus. Nastic responses include thigmonasty, thermonasty, hydronasty, etiolation, and photonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
The Difference between Simple Reflex and Conditioned Reflex Action
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropic and nastic responses allow plants to survive, grow, develop and reproduce. That is, they enable plants to anchor in the soil, absorb water and minerals, and expose leaves to sunlight for photosynthesis; and also help in plant support, enable the plant to survive by avoiding contact with harmful chemicals, trap and digest insects, and facilitate the fertilization process in flowering plants.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Muscles are soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both length & shape of cell. Muscles are responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, and movement of internal organs, e.g. contraction of the heart and movement of food through digestive system by peristalsis.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  ANSWERS:   Some causes of drug abuse include misuse of medical drugs, peer pressure, and lack of life and social skills. Effects of drug abuse and addiction include dependency, mental confusion, heart failure, disruption of normal body functions, aggressiveness, crime and violence, spread of contagious diseases through sharing needles, misuse of money on drugs, body deterioration, birth defect, and death.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement in Plants (Movement of Curvature)
  ANSWERS:   Generally, plants do not show locomotion (movement of the entire organism). However, movement of individual plant organs is possible, modified by sensitivity of the plant to external stimuli. Plant organs move toward scarce resource or otherwise secure food, or use movement as an adaptation to escape or minimize injury from harmful external factors, or ensure development.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes Effects and Preventive Measures of Muscles Cramps
  ANSWERS:   Causes of muscle pain: muscle injury, dehydration, low Ca, K, Na, and Mg, and low blood supply. Also spinal nerve compression, alcoholism, pregnancy, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, or low thyroid gland function can cause muscle cramps. Effects: muscle pain, may interrupt sleep, or make it difficult to walk. Prevention: Ca, K and fluid intake, and stretching or warming up before exercise.

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Peripheral Nervous System and Their Functions
  ANSWERS:   PNS has two components: somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). The SNS carries sensory information from sensory organs to the CNS; controls voluntary body movements. The ANS regulates involuntary and unconscious actions. The ANS has two parts: sympathetic NS – activates the ‘fight or flight' response; and parasympathetic NS – calms and helps the body to conserve energy.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  ANSWERS:   Some causes of drug abuse include misuse of medical drugs, peer pressure, and lack of life and social skills. Effects of drug abuse and addiction include dependency, mental confusion, heart failure, disruption of normal body functions, aggressiveness, crime and violence, spread of contagious diseases through sharing needles, misuse of money on drugs, body deterioration, birth defect, and death.

 
QUESTION:   
Adaptations of Different Types of Muscles to their Roles
  ANSWERS:   Some adaptations of muscles are: (1) Cardiac muscles (have numerous mitochondria that supply energy; they are elastic, branched, striated, multinucleated, and have intercalated discs. (2) Smooth muscles (connected to autonomic nervous system; have many mitochondria and elastic myofibrils). (3) Skeletal muscles (they are multinucleated, have long cells and are striated).

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Central Nervous System and their Functions
  ANSWERS:   Some parts and (functions) of the brain are: Cerebellum (concerned with long-term memory, co-ordination, etc); Cerebrum (controls emotions, hearing, vision, personality, etc); Medulla oblongata (controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heartbeat, etc); Spinal cord (transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body, controls numerous reflexes).

 
QUESTION:   
Advantages and Disadvantages of Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   Advantages of angiosperms: Human food; Livestock feed; Wood (for furniture, charcoal, paper); Textile (textile fibres); Medicine (medicinal herbs); Produce flowers for sale; Forestry (study); Ecology (animal habitats) Climate modification; and Ecotourism. Disadvantages: Toxins (some plants are poisonous when eaten by human and other animals). Drugs (misused as drugs); Weeds (some are bad weeds).

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of the Major Components of the Human Skeleton and their Adaptations
  ANSWERS:   The functions of skeleton are: (a) support (point for muscle attachment); (b) protection (skull protects brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage and breast bone protect the heart and lungs); (c) locomotion (skeleton as a lever system allows movement); (d) storage of minerals (Ca & P); (e) blood formation (red bone marrow produces red blood cells and phagocytes); (f) feeding.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Movement Exhibited by Plants
  ANSWERS:   Tropic movements are movements of curvature that respond to the direction of the external stimulus. Important tropisms include phototropism, geotropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic movements are plant movements independent of the direction of the external stimulus. Nastic movements include epinasty, hyponasty, hydronasty, nyctinasty, seismonasty, and thigmonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of Division Coniferophyta: vascular; mostly evergreen trees and shrubs; xeromorphic; have secondary growth; reproduce sexually by seeds; world's tallest plants (1-100m); have alteration of generation; Distinctive features: their seeds are not enclosed in ovary, but in cones; have needle-like leaves with a thick cuticle; and they are non-flowering but seed bearing plants.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropisms are growth responses of plants that result in curvatures of plant organs toward or away from certain stimuli. Important tropisms in plants include phototropism, gravitropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic responses are non-directional responses to the intensity of a stimulus. Nastic responses include thigmonasty, thermonasty, hydronasty, etiolation, and photonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of division angiospermophyta: they are flowering plants; bear seeds; have root and shoot systems; and show alternation of generation. Distinctive features: they have reproductive structures (flowers), endosperm, double fertilization, and vascular system; they bear seeds enclosed in a fruit, and their haploid gametophyte is confined inside the ovary or anther of the flower.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement and Locomotion
  ANSWERS:   Locomotion is the movement of an entire organism from one place to another. The locomotion of human or other animals is accomplished through walking, running, leaping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming. Movement only involves part of an organism’s body. Examples of movements include moving a hand, leg, head or any part of the body. Both movement and locomotion spend energy stored in the body.

 
QUESTION:   
Process of Fertilization in Flowering Plants
  ANSWERS:   During growth of the pollen tube, the generative nucleus, behind the tube nucleus, divides by mitosis to produce 2 male haploid sperm nuclei. The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and penetrates the embryo sac wall. Then, the tip of the tube bursts open, the tube nucleus disintegrates, creating a passage for the male nuclei and what follows is called double fertilisation.

 
QUESTION:   
Movement and Locomotion Actions
  ANSWERS:   The most visible activities that consume the stored energy in organisms are the movements and locomotion. These activities keep the organisms or parts of them in motion. Examples of locomotion actions include walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming using legs, wings, or fins. Movement actions include bending, squatting, shaking, kicking, speaking, or writing.

 
QUESTION:   
The Classes of the Division Angiospermophyta and their Distinctive Features
  ANSWERS:   Distinctive features of class monocotyledonae: they have one seed leaf, leaf veins parallel, flower parts in threes or multiple of threes, vascular bundles scattered, no secondary growth, fibrous root system. Class dicotyledonae: have two seed leaves, leaf veins reticulated, flower parts in fours or fives or multiples thereof, vascular bundles arranged in a ring, secondary growth, tap root system.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  ANSWERS:   Some causes of drug abuse include misuse of medical drugs, peer pressure, and lack of life and social skills. Effects of drug abuse and addiction include dependency, mental confusion, heart failure, disruption of normal body functions, aggressiveness, crime and violence, spread of contagious diseases through sharing needles, misuse of money on drugs, body deterioration, birth defect, and death.

 
QUESTION:   
Adaptations of Different Types of Muscles to their Roles
  ANSWERS:   Some adaptations of muscles are: (1) Cardiac muscles (have numerous mitochondria that supply energy; they are elastic, branched, striated, multinucleated, and have intercalated discs. (2) Smooth muscles (connected to autonomic nervous system; have many mitochondria and elastic myofibrils). (3) Skeletal muscles (they are multinucleated, have long cells and are striated).

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Movement in Animals and Plants
  ANSWERS:   Movement and locomotion actions are important to animals and plants because they enable the animals to (a) escape from danger; (b) move to better climatic conditions; (c) search for food; and (d) find mate. They also (e) aid in animal or insect pollination; and (f) enable plant shoots to move towards light and roots towards water and nutrient sources so as to carry out photosynthesis.

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of division angiospermophyta: they are flowering plants; bear seeds; have root and shoot systems; and show alternation of generation. Distinctive features: they have reproductive structures (flowers), endosperm, double fertilization, and vascular system; they bear seeds enclosed in a fruit, and their haploid gametophyte is confined inside the ovary or anther of the flower.

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   Some of the advantages of conifers include the following: produce wood that is used for making timber and furniture and burning charcoal; branches used as Christmas trees, and cones used for decoration, also pines are cultivated as ornaments in gardens; produce nuts that are used in human diet; thick coniferous forests modify climate; and used for biological research and ecological studies.

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Central Nervous System and their Functions
  ANSWERS:   Some parts and (functions) of the brain are: Cerebellum (concerned with long-term memory, co-ordination, etc); Cerebrum (controls emotions, hearing, vision, personality, etc); Medulla oblongata (controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heartbeat, etc); Spinal cord (transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body, controls numerous reflexes).

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Movement Exhibited by Plants
  ANSWERS:   Tropic movements are movements of curvature that respond to the direction of the external stimulus. Important tropisms include phototropism, geotropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic movements are plant movements independent of the direction of the external stimulus. Nastic movements include epinasty, hyponasty, hydronasty, nyctinasty, seismonasty, and thigmonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Coordination in Organisms
  ANSWERS:   All living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. These changes are called stimuli (singular: stimulus). Examples of stimuli are light, heat, coldness, sound, smell, taste, touch, pressure, pain, water, and force of gravity, etc. The ability to perceive, interpret and respond to stimuli is called irritability or sensitivity.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement and Locomotion
  ANSWERS:   Locomotion is the movement of an entire organism from one place to another. The locomotion of human or other animals is accomplished through walking, running, leaping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming. Movement only involves part of an organism’s body. Examples of movements include moving a hand, leg, head or any part of the body. Both movement and locomotion spend energy stored in the body.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Sense Organs and Their Relative Position
  ANSWERS:   Sense organs are organs of the body that detect and respond to changes in the environment (stimuli): eyes; nose; ears [OUTER (pinna & auditory canal), MIDDLE (eardrum, malleus, incus, & stapes), INNER (cochlea, semicircular canals & eustachian tube)]; tongue (covered with moist, pink tissue called mucosa and tiny bumps called papillae); and skin (made of 3 layers - dermis, epidermis & hypodermis).

 
QUESTION:   
The Difference between Simple Reflex and Conditioned Reflex Action
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropisms are growth responses of plants that result in curvatures of plant organs toward or away from certain stimuli. Important tropisms in plants include phototropism, gravitropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic responses are non-directional responses to the intensity of a stimulus. Nastic responses include thigmonasty, thermonasty, hydronasty, etiolation, and photonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Muscles are soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both length & shape of cell. Muscles are responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, and movement of internal organs, e.g. contraction of the heart and movement of food through digestive system by peristalsis.

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Peripheral Nervous System and Their Functions
  ANSWERS:   PNS has two components: somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). The SNS carries sensory information from sensory organs to the CNS; controls voluntary body movements. The ANS regulates involuntary and unconscious actions. The ANS has two parts: sympathetic NS – activates the ‘fight or flight' response; and parasympathetic NS – calms and helps the body to conserve energy.

 
QUESTION:   
Movement and Locomotion Actions
  ANSWERS:   The most visible activities that consume the stored energy in organisms are the movements and locomotion. These activities keep the organisms or parts of them in motion. Examples of locomotion actions include walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming using legs, wings, or fins. Movement actions include bending, squatting, shaking, kicking, speaking, or writing.

 
QUESTION:   
Advantages and Disadvantages of Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   Advantages of angiosperms: Human food; Livestock feed; Wood (for furniture, charcoal, paper); Textile (textile fibres); Medicine (medicinal herbs); Produce flowers for sale; Forestry (study); Ecology (animal habitats) Climate modification; and Ecotourism. Disadvantages: Toxins (some plants are poisonous when eaten by human and other animals). Drugs (misused as drugs); Weeds (some are bad weeds).

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Central Nervous System and their Functions
  ANSWERS:   Some parts and (functions) of the brain are: Cerebellum (concerned with long-term memory, co-ordination, etc); Cerebrum (controls emotions, hearing, vision, personality, etc); Medulla oblongata (controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heartbeat, etc); Spinal cord (transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body, controls numerous reflexes).

  
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues are made of specialised cells. Skeletal muscle tissue cells are voluntary, striated, not branched, and multi-nucleated; cardiac muscle tissue cells are involuntary and intrinsically controlled, striated, branched, and singly nucleated; and smooth muscle tissue cells are involuntarily controlled, not striated, not branched, and singly nucleated.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   There are 3 types of muscles: (1) Cardiac muscle – involuntary, striated muscle that forms the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium. (2) Skeletal (voluntary) muscle – occurs in muscles which are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibres known as tendons. (3) Smooth (involuntary/visceral) muscles located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart.

 
QUESTION:   
Experiments to Investigate Movement in Plants
  ANSWERS:   Phototropism (cover a potted plant with a box and cut a small hole in the side of the box). Geotropism (uproot a health plant and lay it flat on soil for 5 days and keep irrigating the soil). Hydrotropisms (plant a seed some distance away from water source and observe the direction of root growth). Thigmotropism (fix a stick close to bean plant). Seismonasty (touch leaves mimosa pudica).

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Movement in Animals and Plants
  ANSWERS:   Movement and locomotion actions are important to animals and plants because they enable the animals to (a) escape from danger; (b) move to better climatic conditions; (c) search for food; and (d) find mate. They also (e) aid in animal or insect pollination; and (f) enable plant shoots to move towards light and roots towards water and nutrient sources so as to carry out photosynthesis.

  
QUESTION:   
The Difference between Simple Reflex and Conditioned Reflex Action
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   Some of the advantages of conifers include the following: produce wood that is used for making timber and furniture and burning charcoal; branches used as Christmas trees, and cones used for decoration, also pines are cultivated as ornaments in gardens; produce nuts that are used in human diet; thick coniferous forests modify climate; and used for biological research and ecological studies.

 
QUESTION:   
The role of Hormones produced by each Endocrine gland
  ANSWERS:   Roles of SOME hormones: neurohormones of hypothalamus controls pituitary gland function; pituitary hormones control functions of other endocrine glands; thyroid hormones regulate the body’s metabolic rate and heart and digestive function, muscle control, brain development and bone maintenance; and parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls release calcium from bone cells into the bloodstream.

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of Division Coniferophyta: vascular; mostly evergreen trees and shrubs; xeromorphic; have secondary growth; reproduce sexually by seeds; world's tallest plants (1-100m); have alteration of generation; Distinctive features: their seeds are not enclosed in ovary, but in cones; have needle-like leaves with a thick cuticle; and they are non-flowering but seed bearing plants.

 
QUESTION:   
Movement and Locomotion Actions
  ANSWERS:   The most visible activities that consume the stored energy in organisms are the movements and locomotion. These activities keep the organisms or parts of them in motion. Examples of locomotion actions include walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming using legs, wings, or fins. Movement actions include bending, squatting, shaking, kicking, speaking, or writing.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes Effects and Preventive Measures of Muscles Cramps
  ANSWERS:   Causes of muscle pain: muscle injury, dehydration, low Ca, K, Na, and Mg, and low blood supply. Also spinal nerve compression, alcoholism, pregnancy, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, or low thyroid gland function can cause muscle cramps. Effects: muscle pain, may interrupt sleep, or make it difficult to walk. Prevention: Ca, K and fluid intake, and stretching or warming up before exercise.

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of the Major Components of the Human Skeleton and their Adaptations
  ANSWERS:   The functions of skeleton are: (a) support (point for muscle attachment); (b) protection (skull protects brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage and breast bone protect the heart and lungs); (c) locomotion (skeleton as a lever system allows movement); (d) storage of minerals (Ca & P); (e) blood formation (red bone marrow produces red blood cells and phagocytes); (f) feeding.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropisms are growth responses of plants that result in curvatures of plant organs toward or away from certain stimuli. Important tropisms in plants include phototropism, gravitropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic responses are non-directional responses to the intensity of a stimulus. Nastic responses include thigmonasty, thermonasty, hydronasty, etiolation, and photonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Movement Exhibited by Plants
  ANSWERS:   Tropic movements are movements of curvature that respond to the direction of the external stimulus. Important tropisms include phototropism, geotropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic movements are plant movements independent of the direction of the external stimulus. Nastic movements include epinasty, hyponasty, hydronasty, nyctinasty, seismonasty, and thigmonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
Process of Fertilization in Flowering Plants
  ANSWERS:   During growth of the pollen tube, the generative nucleus, behind the tube nucleus, divides by mitosis to produce 2 male haploid sperm nuclei. The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and penetrates the embryo sac wall. Then, the tip of the tube bursts open, the tube nucleus disintegrates, creating a passage for the male nuclei and what follows is called double fertilisation.

 
QUESTION:   
Preventive and Control Measures of Drug Abuse
  ANSWERS:   Some preventive and control measures of drug abuse include: early detection and treatment of addicts, motivating addicts to make up for detoxification, inculcating good manners to youth, community education, enforcing laws and regulations against control and supply of drugs, educating pupils and students about effects of drugs, and using rehabilitated drug users as campaigners against drug abuse.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement and Locomotion
  ANSWERS:   Locomotion is the movement of an entire organism from one place to another. The locomotion of human or other animals is accomplished through walking, running, leaping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming. Movement only involves part of an organism’s body. Examples of movements include moving a hand, leg, head or any part of the body. Both movement and locomotion spend energy stored in the body.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Pinus
  ANSWERS:   Pines are species of trees in the genus Pinus. Barks of most pines are thick and scaly. The branches are produced in regular whorls. A cross-section of pine stem has several concentric rings with distinct borders between each ring. They have needle-like leaves. The leaves are in bundles or clusters. They also have non-photosynthetic scale leaves. A cone contains the reproductive structures.

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of division angiospermophyta: they are flowering plants; bear seeds; have root and shoot systems; and show alternation of generation. Distinctive features: they have reproductive structures (flowers), endosperm, double fertilization, and vascular system; they bear seeds enclosed in a fruit, and their haploid gametophyte is confined inside the ovary or anther of the flower.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement in Plants (Movement of Curvature)
  ANSWERS:   Generally, plants do not show locomotion (movement of the entire organism). However, movement of individual plant organs is possible, modified by sensitivity of the plant to external stimuli. Plant organs move toward scarce resource or otherwise secure food, or use movement as an adaptation to escape or minimize injury from harmful external factors, or ensure development.

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of Sense Organs and their Adaptive Features
  ANSWERS:   Some functions of the named sense organs are: SKIN (protection, sensation, excretion, storage of fat, synthesis of vitamin D, and body temperature regulation); EAR (hearing and maintaining balance and posture); EYES (vision); TONGUE (vital in tasting and chewing food and in speech); and NOSE (smelling and breathing). Each sense organ has adaptive structures which make it fit for its function(s).

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Movement Exhibited by Plants
  ANSWERS:   Tropic movements are movements of curvature that respond to the direction of the external stimulus. Important tropisms include phototropism, geotropism, hydrotropism, chemotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic movements are plant movements independent of the direction of the external stimulus. Nastic movements include epinasty, hyponasty, hydronasty, nyctinasty, seismonasty, and thigmonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues are made of specialised cells. Skeletal muscle tissue cells are voluntary, striated, not branched, and multi-nucleated; cardiac muscle tissue cells are involuntary and intrinsically controlled, striated, branched, and singly nucleated; and smooth muscle tissue cells are involuntarily controlled, not striated, not branched, and singly nucleated.

 
QUESTION:   
Process of Fertilization in Flowering Plants
  ANSWERS:   During growth of the pollen tube, the generative nucleus, behind the tube nucleus, divides by mitosis to produce 2 male haploid sperm nuclei. The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and penetrates the embryo sac wall. Then, the tip of the tube bursts open, the tube nucleus disintegrates, creating a passage for the male nuclei and what follows is called double fertilisation.

 
QUESTION:   
Movement and Locomotion Actions
  ANSWERS:   The most visible activities that consume the stored energy in organisms are the movements and locomotion. These activities keep the organisms or parts of them in motion. Examples of locomotion actions include walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming using legs, wings, or fins. Movement actions include bending, squatting, shaking, kicking, speaking, or writing.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes Effects and Preventive Measures of Muscles Cramps
  ANSWERS:   Causes of muscle pain: muscle injury, dehydration, low Ca, K, Na, and Mg, and low blood supply. Also spinal nerve compression, alcoholism, pregnancy, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, or low thyroid gland function can cause muscle cramps. Effects: muscle pain, may interrupt sleep, or make it difficult to walk. Prevention: Ca, K and fluid intake, and stretching or warming up before exercise.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Representative Plants Under Each Class (Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae)
  ANSWERS:   Plants belonging to monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae can easily be distinguished from one another by their observable features. Such features include number of cotyledons, pollen structure, leaf veins, stem vascular arrangement, root development and structure, and whether a plant has or not secondary growth.

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Coordination in Organisms
  ANSWERS:   All living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. These changes are called stimuli (singular: stimulus). Examples of stimuli are light, heat, coldness, sound, smell, taste, touch, pressure, pain, water, and force of gravity, etc. The ability to perceive, interpret and respond to stimuli is called irritability or sensitivity.

 
QUESTION:   
Experiments to Investigate Movement in Plants
  ANSWERS:   Phototropism (cover a potted plant with a box and cut a small hole in the side of the box). Geotropism (uproot a health plant and lay it flat on soil for 5 days and keep irrigating the soil). Hydrotropisms (plant a seed some distance away from water source and observe the direction of root growth). Thigmotropism (fix a stick close to bean plant). Seismonasty (touch leaves mimosa pudica).

 
QUESTION:   
The Classes of the Division Angiospermophyta and their Distinctive Features
  ANSWERS:   Distinctive features of class monocotyledonae: they have one seed leaf, leaf veins parallel, flower parts in threes or multiple of threes, vascular bundles scattered, no secondary growth, fibrous root system. Class dicotyledonae: have two seed leaves, leaf veins reticulated, flower parts in fours or fives or multiples thereof, vascular bundles arranged in a ring, secondary growth, tap root system.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  ANSWERS:   Some causes of drug abuse include misuse of medical drugs, peer pressure, and lack of life and social skills. Effects of drug abuse and addiction include dependency, mental confusion, heart failure, disruption of normal body functions, aggressiveness, crime and violence, spread of contagious diseases through sharing needles, misuse of money on drugs, body deterioration, birth defect, and death.

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of Sense Organs and their Adaptive Features
  ANSWERS:   Some functions of the named sense organs are: SKIN (protection, sensation, excretion, storage of fat, synthesis of vitamin D, and body temperature regulation); EAR (hearing and maintaining balance and posture); EYES (vision); TONGUE (vital in tasting and chewing food and in speech); and NOSE (smelling and breathing). Each sense organ has adaptive structures which make it fit for its function(s).

 
QUESTION:   
The role of Hormones produced by each Endocrine gland
  ANSWERS:   Roles of SOME hormones: neurohormones of hypothalamus controls pituitary gland function; pituitary hormones control functions of other endocrine glands; thyroid hormones regulate the body’s metabolic rate and heart and digestive function, muscle control, brain development and bone maintenance; and parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls release calcium from bone cells into the bloodstream.

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropic and nastic responses allow plants to survive, grow, develop and reproduce. That is, they enable plants to anchor in the soil, absorb water and minerals, and expose leaves to sunlight for photosynthesis; and also help in plant support, enable the plant to survive by avoiding contact with harmful chemicals, trap and digest insects, and facilitate the fertilization process in flowering plants.

 
QUESTION:   
General and Distinctive Features of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   General characteristics of Division Coniferophyta: vascular; mostly evergreen trees and shrubs; xeromorphic; have secondary growth; reproduce sexually by seeds; world's tallest plants (1-100m); have alteration of generation; Distinctive features: their seeds are not enclosed in ovary, but in cones; have needle-like leaves with a thick cuticle; and they are non-flowering but seed bearing plants.

 
QUESTION:   
Advantages and Disadvantages of Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   Advantages of angiosperms: Human food; Livestock feed; Wood (for furniture, charcoal, paper); Textile (textile fibres); Medicine (medicinal herbs); Produce flowers for sale; Forestry (study); Ecology (animal habitats) Climate modification; and Ecotourism. Disadvantages: Toxins (some plants are poisonous when eaten by human and other animals). Drugs (misused as drugs); Weeds (some are bad weeds).

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Pinus
  ANSWERS:   Pines are species of trees in the genus Pinus. Barks of most pines are thick and scaly. The branches are produced in regular whorls. A cross-section of pine stem has several concentric rings with distinct borders between each ring. They have needle-like leaves. The leaves are in bundles or clusters. They also have non-photosynthetic scale leaves. A cone contains the reproductive structures.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Muscles are soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both length & shape of cell. Muscles are responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, and movement of internal organs, e.g. contraction of the heart and movement of food through digestive system by peristalsis.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Sense Organs and Their Relative Position
  ANSWERS:   Sense organs are organs of the body that detect and respond to changes in the environment (stimuli): eyes; nose; ears [OUTER (pinna & auditory canal), MIDDLE (eardrum, malleus, incus, & stapes), INNER (cochlea, semicircular canals & eustachian tube)]; tongue (covered with moist, pink tissue called mucosa and tiny bumps called papillae); and skin (made of 3 layers - dermis, epidermis & hypodermis).

 
QUESTION:   
The Structures of Human Skeleton
  ANSWERS:   The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton, which is attached to the axial skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

 

QUESTION:   
The Importance of Movement in Animals and Plants
  ANSWERS:   Movement and locomotion actions are important to animals and plants because they enable the animals to (a) escape from danger; (b) move to better climatic conditions; (c) search for food; and (d) find mate. They also (e) aid in animal or insect pollination; and (f) enable plant shoots to move towards light and roots towards water and nutrient sources so as to carry out photosynthesis.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Muscles are soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both length & shape of cell. Muscles are responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, and movement of internal organs, e.g. contraction of the heart and movement of food through digestive system by peristalsis.

 
QUESTION:   
Process of Fertilization in Flowering Plants
  ANSWERS:   During growth of the pollen tube, the generative nucleus, behind the tube nucleus, divides by mitosis to produce 2 male haploid sperm nuclei. The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and penetrates the embryo sac wall. Then, the tip of the tube bursts open, the tube nucleus disintegrates, creating a passage for the male nuclei and what follows is called double fertilisation.

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement in Plants (Movement of Curvature)
  ANSWERS:   Generally, plants do not show locomotion (movement of the entire organism). However, movement of individual plant organs is possible, modified by sensitivity of the plant to external stimuli. Plant organs move toward scarce resource or otherwise secure food, or use movement as an adaptation to escape or minimize injury from harmful external factors, or ensure development.

t, root development and structure, and whether a plant has or not secondary growth.

 
QUESTION:   
ction
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Coordination in Organisms
  ANSWERS:   All living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. These changes are called stimuli (singular: stimulus). Examples of stimuli are light, heat, coldness, sound, smell, taste, touch, pressure, pain, water, and force of gravity, etc. The ability to perceive, interpret and respond to stimuli is called irritability or sensitivity.

QUESTION:   
The Functions of the Major Components of the Human Skeleton and their Adaptations
  ANSWERS:   The functions of skeleton are: (a) support (point for muscle attachment); (b) protection (skull protects brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage and breast bone protect the heart and lungs); (c) locomotion (skeleton as a lever system allows movement); (d) storage of minerals (Ca & P); (e) blood formation (red bone marrow produces red blood cells and phagocytes); (f) feeding.

 
QUESTION:   
The Difference between Simple Reflex and Conditioned Reflex Action
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement in Plants (Movement of Curvature)
  ANSWERS:   Generally, plants do not show locomotion (movement of the entire organism). However, movement of individual plant organs is possible, modified by sensitivity of the plant to external stimuli. Plant organs move toward scarce resource or otherwise secure food, or use movement as an adaptation to escape or minimize injury from harmful external factors, or ensure development.

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structures of Human Skeleton
  ANSWERS:   The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton, which is attached to the axial skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Peripheral Nervous System and Their Functions
  ANSWERS:   PNS has two components: somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). The SNS carries sensory information from sensory organs to the CNS; controls voluntary body movements. The ANS regulates involuntary and unconscious actions. The ANS has two parts: sympathetic NS – activates the ‘fight or flight' response; and parasympathetic NS – calms and helps the body to conserve energy.

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of Sense Organs and their Adaptive Features
  ANSWERS:   Some functions of the named sense organs are: SKIN (protection, sensation, excretion, storage of fat, synthesis of vitamin D, and body temperature regulation); EAR (hearing and maintaining balance and posture); EYES (vision); TONGUE (vital in tasting and chewing food and in speech); and NOSE (smelling and breathing). Each sense organ has adaptive structures which make it fit for its function(s).

 
QUESTION:   
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Division Coniferophyta
  ANSWERS:   Some of the advantages of conifers include the following: produce wood that is used for making timber and furniture and burning charcoal; branches used as Christmas trees, and cones used for decoration, also pines are cultivated as ornaments in gardens; produce nuts that are used in human diet; thick coniferous forests modify climate; and used for biological research and ecological studies.

 
QUESTION:   
Movement and Locomotion Actions
  ANSWERS:   The most visible activities that consume the stored energy in organisms are the movements and locomotion. These activities keep the organisms or parts of them in motion. Examples of locomotion actions include walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming using legs, wings, or fins. Movement actions include bending, squatting, shaking, kicking, speaking, or writing.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropisms are growth responses of plants that result in curvatures of plant organs toward or away from certain stimuli. Important tropisms in plants include phototropism, gravitropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Nastic responses are non-directional responses to the intensity of a stimulus. Nastic responses include thigmonasty, thermonasty, hydronasty, etiolation, and photonasty.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Coordination in Organisms
  ANSWERS:   All living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. These changes are called stimuli (singular: stimulus). Examples of stimuli are light, heat, coldness, sound, smell, taste, touch, pressure, pain, water, and force of gravity, etc. The ability to perceive, interpret and respond to stimuli is called irritability or sensitivity.

 
QUESTION:   
The Ways in Which Coordination is Brought About
  ANSWERS:   Coordination in both plants and animals is brought by hormones. Plants produce hormones, such as auxins, and respond to external stimuli e.g., light, touch, temperature, etc. In animals, the nervous system and sense organs also take part in coordination. The nervous system of an animal coordinates many activities in the body. Sense organs are sensitive to external stimuli such as sound and touch.

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropic and nastic responses allow plants to survive, grow, develop and reproduce. That is, they enable plants to anchor in the soil, absorb water and minerals, and expose leaves to sunlight for photosynthesis; and also help in plant support, enable the plant to survive by avoiding contact with harmful chemicals, trap and digest insects, and facilitate the fertilization process in flowering plants.

 
QUESTION:   
The Classes of the Division Angiospermophyta and their Distinctive Features
  ANSWERS:   Distinctive features of class monocotyledonae: they have one seed leaf, leaf veins parallel, flower parts in threes or multiple of threes, vascular bundles scattered, no secondary growth, fibrous root system. Class dicotyledonae: have two seed leaves, leaf veins reticulated, flower parts in fours or fives or multiples thereof, vascular bundles arranged in a ring, secondary growth, tap root system.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes Effects and Preventive Measures of Muscles Cramps
  ANSWERS:   Causes of muscle pain: muscle injury, dehydration, low Ca, K, Na, and Mg, and low blood supply. Also spinal nerve compression, alcoholism, pregnancy, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, or low thyroid gland function can cause muscle cramps. Effects: muscle pain, may interrupt sleep, or make it difficult to walk. Prevention: Ca, K and fluid intake, and stretching or warming up before exercise.

 
QUESTION:   
Preventive and Control Measures of Drug Abuse
  ANSWERS:   Some preventive and control measures of drug abuse include: early detection and treatment of addicts, motivating addicts to make up for detoxification, inculcating good manners to youth, community education, enforcing laws and regulations against control and supply of drugs, educating pupils and students about effects of drugs, and using rehabilitated drug users as campaigners against drug abuse.

 
QUESTION:   
The role of Hormones produced by each Endocrine gland
  ANSWERS:   Roles of SOME hormones: neurohormones of hypothalamus controls pituitary gland function; pituitary hormones control functions of other endocrine glands; thyroid hormones regulate the body’s metabolic rate and heart and digestive function, muscle control, brain development and bone maintenance; and parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls release calcium from bone cells into the bloodstream.

 
QUESTION:   
How Muscles Facilitate Movement
  ANSWERS:   You will need to learn about the muscles of the body in order to understand how this system contributes to the overall design of the human body. The human body is composed of over 500 muscles working together to facilitate movement. Movement occurs when muscles contract or shorten, pulling the bones with them. Muscles work in pairs; when one shortens, the corresponding muscle lengthens.

 
QUESTION:   
The Concept of Movement and Locomotion
  ANSWERS:   Locomotion is the movement of an entire organism from one place to another. The locomotion of human or other animals is accomplished through walking, running, leaping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming. Movement only involves part of an organism’s body. Examples of movements include moving a hand, leg, head or any part of the body. Both movement and locomotion spend energy stored in the body.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues are made of specialised cells. Skeletal muscle tissue cells are voluntary, striated, not branched, and multi-nucleated; cardiac muscle tissue cells are involuntary and intrinsically controlled, striated, branched, and singly nucleated; and smooth muscle tissue cells are involuntarily controlled, not striated, not branched, and singly nucleated.

QUESTION:   
Preventive and Control Measures of Drug Abuse
  ANSWERS:   Some preventive and control measures of drug abuse include: early detection and treatment of addicts, motivating addicts to make up for detoxification, inculcating good manners to youth, community education, enforcing laws and regulations against control and supply of drugs, educating pupils and students about effects of drugs, and using rehabilitated drug users as campaigners against drug abuse.

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.

 
QUESTION:   
Adaptations of Different Types of Muscles to their Roles
  ANSWERS:   Some adaptations of muscles are: (1) Cardiac muscles (have numerous mitochondria that supply energy; they are elastic, branched, striated, multinucleated, and have intercalated discs. (2) Smooth muscles (connected to autonomic nervous system; have many mitochondria and elastic myofibrils). (3) Skeletal muscles (they are multinucleated, have long cells and are striated).

 
QUESTION:   
How Muscles Facilitate Movement
  ANSWERS:   You will need to learn about the muscles of the body in order to understand how this system contributes to the overall design of the human body. The human body is composed of over 500 muscles working together to facilitate movement. Movement occurs when muscles contract or shorten, pulling the bones with them. Muscles work in pairs; when one shortens, the corresponding muscle lengthens.

 
QUESTION:   
Causes Effects and Preventive Measures of Muscles Cramps
  ANSWERS:   Causes of muscle pain: muscle injury, dehydration, low Ca, K, Na, and Mg, and low blood supply. Also spinal nerve compression, alcoholism, pregnancy, kidney failure, hypothyroidism, or low thyroid gland function can cause muscle cramps. Effects: muscle pain, may interrupt sleep, or make it difficult to walk. Prevention: Ca, K and fluid intake, and stretching or warming up before exercise.

 
QUESTION:   
Advantages and Disadvantages of Division Angiospermophyta
  ANSWERS:   Advantages of angiosperms: Human food; Livestock feed; Wood (for furniture, charcoal, paper); Textile (textile fibres); Medicine (medicinal herbs); Produce flowers for sale; Forestry (study); Ecology (animal habitats) Climate modification; and Ecotourism. Disadvantages: Toxins (some plants are poisonous when eaten by human and other animals). Drugs (misused as drugs); Weeds (some are bad weeds).

 
QUESTION:   
Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  ANSWERS:   Some causes of drug abuse include misuse of medical drugs, peer pressure, and lack of life and social skills. Effects of drug abuse and addiction include dependency, mental confusion, heart failure, disruption of normal body functions, aggressiveness, crime and violence, spread of contagious diseases through sharing needles, misuse of money on drugs, body deterioration, birth defect, and death.

 
QUESTION:   
The Classes of the Division Angiospermophyta and their Distinctive Features
  ANSWERS:   Distinctive features of class monocotyledonae: they have one seed leaf, leaf veins parallel, flower parts in threes or multiple of threes, vascular bundles scattered, no secondary growth, fibrous root system. Class dicotyledonae: have two seed leaves, leaf veins reticulated, flower parts in fours or fives or multiples thereof, vascular bundles arranged in a ring, secondary growth, tap root system.

 
QUESTION:   
The Importance of Tropic and Nastic Responses
  ANSWERS:   Tropic and nastic responses allow plants to survive, grow, develop and reproduce. That is, they enable plants to anchor in the soil, absorb water and minerals, and expose leaves to sunlight for photosynthesis; and also help in plant support, enable the plant to survive by avoiding contact with harmful chemicals, trap and digest insects, and facilitate the fertilization process in flowering plants.

 
QUESTION:   
Types of Muscles
  ANSWERS:   There are 3 types of muscles: (1) Cardiac muscle – involuntary, striated muscle that forms the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium. (2) Skeletal (voluntary) muscle – occurs in muscles which are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibres known as tendons. (3) Smooth (involuntary/visceral) muscles located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart.

 
QUESTION:   
The Functions of Sense Organs and their Adaptive Features
  ANSWERS:   Some functions of the named sense organs are: SKIN (protection, sensation, excretion, storage of fat, synthesis of vitamin D, and body temperature regulation); EAR (hearing and maintaining balance and posture); EYES (vision); TONGUE (vital in tasting and chewing food and in speech); and NOSE (smelling and breathing). Each sense organ has adaptive structures which make it fit for its function(s).

 
QUESTION:   
The Difference between Simple Reflex and Conditioned Reflex Action
  ANSWERS:   Differences: simple reflex action/conditioned reflex action respectively: it requires only one stimulus/it involves more than one stimuli; it mostly involves the spinal cord/involves the brain; it is an immediate action (no time to learn)/it requires time to learn; it is inborn behaviour/it is an acquired behaviour (learned behaviour); action starts by muscle receptor cells/it starts in the brain

 
QUESTION:   
Process of Fertilization in Flowering Plants
  ANSWERS:   During growth of the pollen tube, the generative nucleus, behind the tube nucleus, divides by mitosis to produce 2 male haploid sperm nuclei. The pollen tube enters the ovule through the micropyle and penetrates the embryo sac wall. Then, the tip of the tube bursts open, the tube nucleus disintegrates, creating a passage for the male nuclei and what follows is called double fertilisation.

 
QUESTION:   
The Ways in Which Coordination is Brought About
  ANSWERS:   Coordination in both plants and animals is brought by hormones. Plants produce hormones, such as auxins, and respond to external stimuli e.g., light, touch, temperature, etc. In animals, the nervous system and sense organs also take part in coordination. The nervous system of an animal coordinates many activities in the body. Sense organs are sensitive to external stimuli such as sound and touch.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Representative Plants Under Each Class (Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae)
  ANSWERS:   Plants belonging to monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae can easily be distinguished from one another by their observable features. Such features include number of cotyledons, pollen structure, leaf veins, stem vascular arrangement, root development and structure, and whether a plant has or not secondary growth.

 
QUESTION:   
The role of Hormones produced by each Endocrine gland
  ANSWERS:   Roles of SOME hormones: neurohormones of hypothalamus controls pituitary gland function; pituitary hormones control functions of other endocrine glands; thyroid hormones regulate the body’s metabolic rate and heart and digestive function, muscle control, brain development and bone maintenance; and parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls release calcium from bone cells into the bloodstream.

 
QUESTION:   
The Structure of Pinus
  ANSWERS:   Pines are species of trees in the genus Pinus. Barks of most pines are thick and scaly. The branches are produced in regular whorls. A cross-section of pine stem has several concentric rings with distinct borders between each ring. They have needle-like leaves. The leaves are in bundles or clusters. They also have non-photosynthetic scale leaves. A cone contains the reproductive structures.

 
QUESTION:   
Experiments to Investigate Movement in Plants
  ANSWERS:   Phototropism (cover a potted plant with a box and cut a small hole in the side of the box). Geotropism (uproot a health plant and lay it flat on soil for 5 days and keep irrigating the soil). Hydrotropisms (plant a seed some distance away from water source and observe the direction of root growth). Thigmotropism (fix a stick close to bean plant). Seismonasty (touch leaves mimosa pudica).

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Central Nervous System and their Functions
  ANSWERS:   Some parts and (functions) of the brain are: Cerebellum (concerned with long-term memory, co-ordination, etc); Cerebrum (controls emotions, hearing, vision, personality, etc); Medulla oblongata (controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heartbeat, etc); Spinal cord (transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body, controls numerous reflexes).

 
QUESTION:   
The Structures of Human Skeleton
  ANSWERS:   The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It can be divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton, which is attached to the axial skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

 
QUESTION:   
Movement and Locomotion Actions
  ANSWERS:   The most visible activities that consume the stored energy in organisms are the movements and locomotion. These activities keep the organisms or parts of them in motion. Examples of locomotion actions include walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, gliding, flying, or swimming using legs, wings, or fins. Movement actions include bending, squatting, shaking, kicking, speaking, or writing.

 
QUESTION:   
The Components of the Central Nervous System and their Functions
  ANSWERS:   Some parts and (functions) of the brain are: Cerebellum (concerned with long-term memory, co-ordination, etc); Cerebrum (controls emotions, hearing, vision, personality, etc); Medulla oblongata (controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heartbeat, etc); Spinal cord (transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body, controls numerous reflexes).

 
QUESTION:   
Proper Ways of Handling and Using Drugs
  ANSWERS:   Proper use and handling of drugs include: avoiding taking any drug without prescription by the doctor, staying away from peer pressures and drug addicts, keeping oneself busy with an activity, reporting any drug abuse or trafficking, youth counselling, rehabilitation of addicts, avoiding overdose of over-the-counter drugs, finishing the prescribed doses, and keeping drugs out of children’s reach.



Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post