GET NOTES THROUGH WHATSAPP/EMAIL BY PAYING LITTLE AMOUNT OF MONEY, CONTACT US 0759146185/ 0622105865

BIOLOGY FORM FOUR QUESTION AND ANSWERS
QUESTION: The major Phyla of the Kingdom Animalia
ANSWER:      Kingdom Animalia has approximately 36 sub-divisions known as phyla. Each phyla share particular properties structurally and functionally which together separate it from other phyla. Below are the most common phyla classified under traditional biological methodology. Phylum Porifera, Phylum Platyhelminthes, Phylum Aschelmeinthes, Phylum Annelida, Phylum Mollusca, Phylum Echinodermata and Chordata.

QUESTIONe: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Roundworms
ANSWER:      Roundworm parasites affect most species of animals and plants, making them important agricultural pests. Hookworms infect a variety of mammals, with species in cows, dogs, cats, as well as humans. Ascaris is an impressively largeworm lives in human intestines. Filarial worms are a group of roundworms including Wuchereria causing elephantiasis. Onchocerca causes a disease called river blindness.
QUESTION: Advantages and Disadvantages of Lumbricus (Earthworm)
ANSWERS:     The earthworms, of which there are many species, are exceedingly important in soil creation, particularly in temperate areas. In marine environments the numerous species of Polychaetes play a fundamentally important role in the maintenance of food chains and the whole ecological balance of the seas. Earthworms decompose dead and rotting organic material in the soil.

 
  QUESTION: 
Growth and Development in Human being
ANSWERS:     Growth and development in humans occurs over a lifetime. Growth in humans begins just after fertilisation. Development is an increase in the complexity of an organism. In biological terms, this entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being. Unlike plants, human beings and other mammals show limited growth. Limited growth is growth that ceases at maturity.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Causes and Effects of Genetic Disorders
ANSWERS:     Genetic disorders are caused by gene mutations and environmental factors, or by chromosome mutation or damage. Types of chromosomal mutations include deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation. Gene mutations may cause disorders like sickle cell anaemia, achondroplasia, haemophilia, infertility, some cancers, etc. Chromosome mutations may cause Turner’s syndrome, abortions, stillbirth, etc

 
  QUESTION: 
The Procedures and Techniques of CVT for HIV/AID
ANSWERS:     Procedures and techniques of VCT include the following: (1) it must be voluntary; (2) the result must be correct; (3) the result should be provided to a client in person; (4) the counsellor must ensure the client has adequate understanding of the results; (5) the result should be interpreted in a simplified manner; (6) and when the client is found -ve, educate him/her on how to remain negative.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Significance of CVT in the Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS and STIs
ANSWERS:     Significance of VCT includes these: it enables people to know their HIV/AIDS status; it promotes sexual behaviour change; it enables early detection and treatment; it helps people learn about the disease; it helps the government plan for care and treatment; it helps prevent mother–to-child transmission; and it enables people make informed decisions about marriage, pregnancy and sexual relations.

 
  QUESTION: 
The basic ideas about the origin of life
ANSWERS:     There are plenty of ideas about the origin of life on Earth, but few clear facts. It is generally agreed that all life today evolved by common descent from a single primitive life form. Scientists think it was a natural process which took place perhaps 3,900 million years ago. However, changes in climatic conditions, habitats and complexity of living organisms contradict these suggestions.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Organisms under each Class of Phylum Arthropoda
ANSWERS:     Crustaceans are used as food and decoration especially lobsters, shrimps and attract tourist. Millipedes like earthworms aerate the soil. Insects are useful in pollination e.g. bees. Many insects transmit diseases to people by transmitting contaminated material e.g. houseflies, they cause damage to crops and forestry locusts and some larvae e.g. Feed on crops.

 
  QUESTION: 
General and Distinctive Features of the Kingdom Animalia
ANSWERS:     Distinguishing characteristics of the kingdom Animalia include: possession of eukaryotic cells, lack of cell walls, possession of heterotrophic mode of nutrition which involve ingestion of food, primitive to advanced sensory systems, mostly reproduce sexually and some asexually, and have ability to move at some point and time through life cycle (locomotion).

 
  QUESTION: 
Evidences and application of Organic Evolution in the Real Life Situation
ANSWERS:     Evidences of organic evolution include: Fossil records; Comparative anatomy and morphology; Comparative embryology; Comparative biochemistry and physiology; Comparative cytology; Artificial selection; Taxonomical evidences; Distribution of organisms in time and space; and resistance to drugs, antibiotics and pesticides.

 
  QUESTION: 
General and Distinctive Features of the Kingdom Animalia
ANSWERS:     Distinguishing characteristics of the kingdom Animalia include: possession of eukaryotic cells, lack of cell walls, possession of heterotrophic mode of nutrition which involve ingestion of food, primitive to advanced sensory systems, mostly reproduce sexually and some asexually, and have ability to move at some point and time through life cycle (locomotion).

 
  QUESTION: 
The concept of Genetics Materials
ANSWERS:     The genetic materials of a cell or an organism refer to those materials found in the nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm. These materials play a fundamental role in determining the structure and nature of cell substances. They are also capable of self-propagating and variation. Genetic material are passed among large organisms by vertical transmission from parent to offspring.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Significance of Mitosis in the Growth
ANSWERS:     Mitosis is a type of cell division used for growth, repair and sexual reproduction. It occurs whenever new cells are needed. The process is very important for growth because it leads to increase in the number of cells within an organism. Significance of mitosis in growth include: Genetic stability, reproduction, repair of broken cells, regeneration of body parts, and replacement of dead cells.

 
  QUESTION: 
Conditions necessary for seed Germination
ANSWERS:     Three conditions required for germination are water, oxygen and a suitable temperature. Water is a solvent required for enzymatic action. Water also softens the seed coat to allow the embryo to emerge through. Oxygen is needed by the seed for respiration and other physiological activities. Enzymes are sensitive to temperature. Enzymes are most active at optimum temperature.

 
  QUESTION: 
The General and Distinctive Features of the Phylum Platyhelminthes
ANSWERS:     Characteristics of Platyhelminthes include: Bilaterally symmetrical, body contains no internal cavity, possesses a blind gut i.e. it has a mouth but no anus, has Protonephridial excretory organs, has a nervous system of longitudinal fibres, generally dorsoventrally flattened, reproduction mostly sexual as hermaphrodites, and many occur as parasites of other animals.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Concept of Mitosis
ANSWERS:     There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is division of somatic cells (body cells) in which chromosomes are divided into two diploid sets of identical chromosomes. Meiosis is division of sex cells (reproductive cells) to produce haploid cells different from each other and the parent cell. In mitosis, each cell organelle divides to form its own copy.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Concept of Inheritance
ANSWERS:     Inheritance refers to the reception of genetic characters passed from parent to offspring. Thousands of genes are encoded in the DNA. Everyone has two copies of every gene; one inherited from the mother, and one inherited from the father. Errors in our DNA (mutations) can also be inherited from our parents, or they can arise spontaneously during development.

 
  QUESTION: 
The theories of the Origin of Life
ANSWERS:     There are numerous theories of evolution that try to explain the origin of living things. The main theories of the origin of life include Special Creation (All forms of life on the planet Earth, have been created by God, The Almighty), Chemical Evolution, Spontaneous Generation, Consecutive Creations, and Steady State. Others are Endosymbiosis, Cosmogeny, Abiogenesis or Biopoesis, and Panspermia.

 
  QUESTION: 
Classes of the Phylum Arthropoda
ANSWERS:     Classes of the Phylum Arthropoda include: Class Crustacean, Class Insecta, Class Chilopoda, Class merostoma, Class Diplopoda and Class Arachnida.

  QUESTION: 
The concept of seed Germination
ANSWERS:     Germination is the process by which a plant grows from a seed. There are two types of seed germination namely hypogeal germination and epigeal germination. Hypogeal germination is a type of germination in which the seed cotyledons remain underground. Epigeal germination is a type of germination in which the cotyledons are brought above the soil level.

 
  QUESTION: 
General and Distinctive Features of the Kingdom Animalia
ANSWERS:     Distinguishing characteristics of the kingdom Animalia include: possession of eukaryotic cells, lack of cell walls, possession of heterotrophic mode of nutrition which involve ingestion of food, primitive to advanced sensory systems, mostly reproduce sexually and some asexually, and have ability to move at some point and time through life cycle (locomotion).

 
  QUESTION: 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Lumbricus (Earthworm)
ANSWERS:     The earthworms, of which there are many species, are exceedingly important in soil creation, particularly in temperate areas. In marine environments the numerous species of Polychaetes play a fundamentally important role in the maintenance of food chains and the whole ecological balance of the seas. Earthworms decompose dead and rotting organic material in the soil.

 
  QUESTION: 
The concept of Counselling and Voluntary Testing
ANSWERS:     HIV/AIDS counselling provided at VCT sites is free and confidential. There are two counselling sessions: one before testing ("pre-test counselling") and another after testing ("post-test counselling"). Counselling focuses on the infection (HIV), the disease (AIDS), the test, and positive behaviour change. The counselling is voluntary because no one is compelled to be tested against his/her will.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Concept of Mitosis
ANSWERS:     There are two types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is division of somatic cells (body cells) in which chromosomes are divided into two diploid sets of identical chromosomes. Meiosis is division of sex cells (reproductive cells) to produce haploid cells different from each other and the parent cell. In mitosis, each cell organelle divides to form its own copy.

 
  QUESTION: 
Lamarck’s theory of Evolution
ANSWERS:     Lamarck’s Theory of Organic Evolution centred on two ideas: the law of use and disuse; and the law of inheritance of acquired characteristics. His theory stipulated that a characteristic which is used more and more by an organism becomes bigger and stronger. One that is not used degenerates (disappears) eventually. Any characteristic acquired by organism in lifetime is passed on to its offspring.

 
  QUESTION: 
Precautions to be taken when Handling People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and STIs
ANSWERS:     Precautions to be taken when handling PLWHA and STIs include: (1) Wear gloves to prevent direct contact with the patient’s body fluids; (2) Wash the bedding and clothes with soap (3) Do not share toothbrushes, razors, skin-piercing instruments, or needles; (4) Cover your wounds with clean, sterile bandage; (5) Dispose off vomits or bandages used when dressing wounds; (6) Learn about HIV and AIDS.

 
  QUESTION: 
Examples of Organisms under each Class of the Phylum Artropoda
ANSWERS:     Class Crustacean: Examples are woodlice, water flea and Cray fish. Class Insecta: Examples are grasshoppers, houseflies, butterflies, bees and termites, Class Chilopoda: Example is centipedes. Class Diplopoda: example is millipedes. Class Arachnida: Examples are spiders, ticks, scorpions and mites.

 
  QUESTION: 
Defference between HIV, AIDS and STIs
ANSWERS:     HIV is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system, particularly CD4 cells (component of the white blood cells). If a person is untreated, s/he eventually develops AIDS, a condition in which a person infected with HIV develops signs of repeated infections. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are infections that are commonly spread through sexual contact e.g. gonorrhoea, AIDS and syphilis.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Causes and Effects of Genetic Disorders
ANSWERS:     Genetic disorders are caused by gene mutations and environmental factors, or by chromosome mutation or damage. Types of chromosomal mutations include deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation. Gene mutations may cause disorders like sickle cell anaemia, achondroplasia, haemophilia, infertility, some cancers, etc. Chromosome mutations may cause Turner’s syndrome, abortions, stillbirth, etc

 
  QUESTION: 
The Life Skills Needed for Home based Care for PLWHA
ANSWERS:     PLWHA need care and support from everybody. Some life skills needed for home-based care for PLWHA include: showing love, respect and support; talking openly about the disease; helping to reduce stress and stressful situations; helping to provide balanced diet; encouraging them to live with hope, be active and get treatment if they are sick; and cleaning their houses, utensils, clothes, etc.

 
  QUESTION: 
The concept of the Genetics
ANSWERS:     Genetics is the study of heredity. Heredity is a biological process where a parent passes certain genes onto their offspring. These genes in turn express specific traits. Some of these traits may be hair and eye colour and skin colour, etc. Some genes may also carry the risk of certain diseases and disorders that may pass on from parents to offspring.

 
  QUESTION: 
The structure and composition of Genetics Materials (Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Ribonucleic Acid )
ANSWERS:     DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides linked in a chain through phosphodiester bonds. Nucleotides are the building blocks of all nucleic acids. Nucleotides have a distinctive structure composed of three components covalently bound together: a nitrogen-containing base, a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group. The five bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), Thiamine (T) and uracil (U).

 
  QUESTION: 
Stages of Mitosis
ANSWERS:     Mitosis occurs in stages. The five stages of mitosis in order of their occurrence are: Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. These phases appear as if they are separate phases but they actually aren’t. They take place in continuation and within a short time. One stage is immediately followed by the next in the cycle. In some old books the stages are shortened into four stages.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Relationship between HIV and STIs
ANSWERS:     People with STIs are more likely to be infected with HIV than healthy people. Some STIs cause open wounds through which HIV enter the bloodstream. Some STIs cause increased concentration of CD4 cells in the genital area, hence easily attacked with HIV. People infected with STIs have increased concentrations of HIV in their seminal and vaginal fluids, increasing the possibility of HIV transmission.

 
  QUESTION: 
The theories of the Origin of Life
ANSWERS:     There are numerous theories of evolution that try to explain the origin of living things. The main theories of the origin of life include Special Creation (All forms of life on the planet Earth, have been created by God, The Almighty), Chemical Evolution, Spontaneous Generation, Consecutive Creations, and Steady State. Others are Endosymbiosis, Cosmogeny, Abiogenesis or Biopoesis, and Panspermia.

 
  QUESTION: 
The General and Distinctive Features of the Phylum Platyhelminthes
ANSWERS:     Characteristics of Platyhelminthes include: Bilaterally symmetrical, body contains no internal cavity, possesses a blind gut i.e. it has a mouth but no anus, has Protonephridial excretory organs, has a nervous system of longitudinal fibres, generally dorsoventrally flattened, reproduction mostly sexual as hermaphrodites, and many occur as parasites of other animals.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Advantages and Disadvantages Taenia (Tapeworm)
ANSWERS:     Anthobothrium and Paraorigmatobothrium, soak up nutrients from digested food while sitting inside animal guts. Taenia solium, (pork tapeworm). The larvae of T. solium are a major cause of human epilepsy. T. saginata (beef tapeworm), it causes taeniasis inside the human intestine, but does not cause cysticercosis. Its infection is relatively harmless and clinically asymptomatic.

 
  QUESTION: 
Classes of the Phylum Arthropoda
ANSWERS:     Classes of the Phylum Arthropoda include: Class Crustacean, Class Insecta, Class Chilopoda, Class merostoma, Class Diplopoda and Class Arachnida.

 
  QUESTION: 
The Concept of Organic Evolution

ANSWERS:     Organic evolution refers to the slow and gradual process by which living organisms have changed from the simplest unicellular forms to the most complex multi-cellular forms that are existing today. Organic evolution primarily involves modifications in the existing organisms and the inheritance of these modifications. There are several theories that explain the mechanism of organic evolution.

2 Comments

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post