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HISTORY TWO ADVANCED LEVEL TOPIC. 1.

THE RISE OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE.

CAPITALISM...
★Refers to a system of production in which individual person was own factor of production such as Factory, Industry, land, trade and other source of Capital for making profit maximization.

★Capitalism Refers to class mode of production consists of the capitalists who own the major means of production and the workers or proletarians that are deprived of the means of production in order to get profit

STAGES OF CAPITALISM
★Mercantilis 15-18 th c
★Industrial Capitalism 18-19th c
★Monopoly Capitalism 19-20th c

CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITALISM
★Free market economy
★Private ownership of means of prod
★Profit maximazation
★Based on Exploitation
★Based of Classes
★Advanced level of productive forces

FEUDALISM....
★Refers to an estate of land held on behalf of a lords and in return the holder of the land offered military services and other services to the lord. 

THE BASIC FEATURE OF EUROPEAN FEUDALISM 
★There was bounded relationship between the lords and the tenants .
★There was antagonistic classes of lords and the serfs.
★The two dominants classes were feudal lords and tenants
★Production was for subsistence ie serfs producers mainly
★Feudalism in Europe went hand with building of Armies
★In Feudalism the feudal activities were basically agrarian (for food production), although few industries assisted, mainly people were attached to the soil, that is cultivating the soil to earn a living..
★Land was major economic property and means of production
★Land was owned by few landloards
★ The churchbwas also own Vast land
★ Payment of Rent
★Excessive exploitation
★Division of land
★Restrictive law

TRANSITION FROM FEUDALISM TO CAPITALISM/ FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE
★Agrarian Revolution
★The Commercial revolution
★Demographic revolution
★Proimitive accumulation of Capital
★Political Revolution
★Developmentbof towns
★Black Death
★Crusades
★Peasants struggle. 



★★★RISE OF MERCANTILISM IN EUROPE.15-18 th c
MERCANTILISM★★★....
★It refers to large scale trade or commerce trade conducted through overseas.
★Mercantilism is the first stage of capitalism that appeared during 15th c where by trade and commerce was conducted by European countries with the Continental of Africa, Asia, America through overseas trade and also silver (precious metal ) were used as the coin.
★Economic systems of Mercantilism was based on trade and commerce. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF MERCHANTILISM. 
★National Unification..Is the unifying of small states to form one strong state for expansion of internal market, removal of trade barrier and the use of raw materials and other resources.
★Bullionsism
★Protectionism
★Natinal riival and militarism
★Colonialism
★Banking sector / financial institution
★Developmentbof science and technology
★Colonialism
★Un equal exchage
★Militarism
★Circumnavigations (agents) 

THE ROLE OF NAVIGATION LAW TO THE DEVELOPMET OF MERCANTILIS
★It enable Uk to collect revenue
★It enable merchants to be easy to transport raw material from Afrika to Europe
★It enable merchants to transport manufacture goods from europe to Africa
★It leads merchants to accumulation of capital
★It leads to development of Marine techn
★It led to development of financial institution

FACTORS / FORCES/ CAUSES/ OF THE RISE OF MERCHANTILISM. 
★Internal trade (inter trade and craft)
★Periodic exhibition among the European Nations
★The development of Marrine technology with Campass bearing and direction in 15th c
★Development of financial institution and insurance company
★The rise of strong states and political revolution.
★The role played by Enclosure system.
★Geographical discovery of the new World by Christopher Columbia on 24/10/1942 led to establishment of Plantation and mines in America, Canada, Peru, Colombia.
★Profitability of unequal exchange
★Crusade war
★Provision of security to merchanta
★Military advancement
★Availability of commodities
★Profitability among merchants
★The rise of National states
★Enclosure system
★Introduction of money
★Role of merchants king

HOW PRIMITIVE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL WAS MAINTAINED IN BRITAIN
★Through enclosure system
★Plundering church land
★Plundering french towns
★Crusade war Islam vs Christ 11-12 th C
★Through merchantilism
★Protectionism policy
★Colonial system of British

REASON FOR BRITAIN SUCCESS IN THE MECHANRILISM
★The role of tudor monarch
★Dvl of industrial production
★The enclosure system
★Developmet of marine techlg
★The imposition of protective law
★Through exploitation other European Nations
★Defeating small powers in mercantilism
★The role played by Britain colonial power
★Fighting her rival Nations
★The imposition of passing law
★Through exploitation other European Nations

CONTRIBUTION OF TUDOR MONARCHY TOWARD THE DEVELOPMENT OF MERCANTILISM
★Establishment of absolute rule
★They supported enclosure system
★The monarchy encourage the establiahment of other industries eg sugar etc
★The Monarchy provided Securiry to English Merchants
★Encouraged formation of Charterd Companies
★It promoted and Organized Settlement of Merchants group
★It promoted protectionism to Merchants
★It passed Navigation Acts
★It contribution of abolition of serfdom 

IMPACTS OF MERCANTILISM ON THE AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN
★Coloninization of the American and Caribbean
★Agriculture development
★Population growth
★Creation of black Dominated states in the Caribbean
★Growth of towns and city
★Industrial growth.
★It strengthened racism in the Americans
★Spread of disease and depletion
★Spread of Christianity
★Exploitation of resources.

IMPACT OF MERCHANTILSM IN EUROPE
★Traders speed up technology development
★It led to the rise of sea ports town like Liverpool
★It led to speed up development of industry
★It also contionued to be source of capitalism accumulation by European merchant where by capital was to be invested in investiments such as Banks, industry, transport etc
★It also helped great deal to strengthen transitional link within Western European economic. Eg Sugar from Caribbean islands was exported from England

IMPACT OF MERCHANTALISM IN AFRICA.
1. ECONOMIC
★Technoloical stagnation
★Decline of inter African trading system
★Exploitaion of African resources
★Introductin of new Crops
★Development of Agriculture tools

2. POLITICAL
★It led of rise and fall of some African states.
★Demise of local leaders Admst
★Lack of freedom of debate and speech
★Paved the way for future colonization

3. SOCILA EFFECTS
★Spread of disease
★Famine and hunger
★Depopulation
★Family separation
★Deculturalisation
★Development of kiswahili
★Spread of christian
★It led to insecurity among Africans
★It led to destruction of African trade eg Trans Sahara.
★It led to introduction of unequal exchange.
★Stagnation of African Science and Technology.
★Decline of Agricultural Production in Africa.
★Introduction of Slave
★Destruction of African culture

CONTRIBUTION OF MERCANTILISM TO THE RISE OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE.
★It led to the accumulation of capital among Europeans
★It led to developments of financial institution and insurance.
★It led to development of town, cities and sea ports
★It led to advanced and developments of science and technology.
★It led to availability of cheap labor In Europe.
★It led to availability of raw material
★It led to development Agrarian revolution in 16th c
★It led to emergency of strong military. 
★Development of money economy
★Colonial expansion
★Development of Agriculture

★★TRIANGULAR SLAVE TRADE★★
★Refers to the trade which cut cross between three continents such as Africans that provide cheap labor in term of slave, American as source of raw materials , Europe as produced manufactured goods

FORCES FOR THE RISE OF TRIANGULAR SLAVE TRADE.
★Developmwnt of marrine tech
★Dsicover of the new world
★The profitability factors
★Discover of sea routes by Columbus
★The rise of merchalism
★Existence of season winds
★Accessibility btn new world and Africa
★Establishment of new plantation in the world
★Expensiveness of whites slave
★Accumulation of wealth
★The role played by African chiefs

WHY EUROPEANS PREFERRED AFRICAN SLAVES
★African slaves were cheap
★Africans slaves were hard workers
★European labour knew their rights than Africans
★The racial factor
★Africana slaves were source of Markets
★Africans were inferio to whites
★Africans were not easy to resist among whites
★Africans were not easy to escape.

THE ROLE OF BLACK AFRICANS TO THE RISE OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE AND AMERICA
★Slave provide cheap labour
★Slaves were source of marker
★Slaves develps city and states
★Slaves provide raw materials
★Development of Industrials
★Black were source of European independence
★Blacks were engaged in various economic activities
★Population increase
★Development of marine technology.

FACTORS FOR ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE.
★The industial rev in Europe
★The fall of slave price
★Formation of Ant slave group
★The rise of humanitarian in Europe
★Constants strikes and riots btn slaves
★Formation of ant slave movement
★Increase of Capitalistics demands of raw materials
★Sugar competition btn France and British
★Protect of European local markets
★The influence of french revolution 1789
★Role of religious bodies

METHOD USED IN ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE.
★Navy patrol
★Throug passing law and legal means
★Application of diplomacy and Diologue
★Through introduction of legitimate trade
★Through establishment of Missionaries center
★Through international and regional treaties
★Through bribing Africans chiefs to corporate.

WHY IT TAKE LONG TO ABOLISH SLAVE TRADE IN AFRICA(BOTTLENECKS)
★Resistance from Africans
★Poor Africans infrastructure
★Weakness of treaties sign
★Bad African Climatic condition
★The high demanda of slaves in French Sugar plantations
★Disregarded of Human rights
★Lack of Massive African awareness
★Financial problems of anti slave groups
★Unwilling of Arabs to abolition of Slave trade.

IMPACT OF ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE.
★Development of Agriculture
★Introduction of Legitimate trade
★Created peace and security in Africans
★Introduction of money economy
★Penetration of Agent of colonialism in African
★Collapse of African trade
★Rise and fall of some African city states
★Foundation of Sierra Leon and Liberia

CONDITION WHICH FORCED MERCHANTS TO CAPTURE SLAVES FROM AFRICA TO AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN.
★Merchantalism
★Booming capitalist Agriculture
★Industrial revolution in Europe
★African slaves were cheap
★Discovery of Marine technology
★Inability of the indigenous people
★Discovery of the new world




★★OPEN FIELD SYSTEM FORM OF AGRICULTURE (OLD SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE).★★
★Refers to type of Agriculture that existed in Europe during feudal mode of production or before industrial revolution

FEATURE OF OPEN FIELD SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE.
★Land loard was own land and farm
★Existence of Small forms on fragments plots
★There was no Surplus production
★There was no use application of fertilizer
★Local tools were used in production
★The Parish church also was own land

THE CHANGES THAT REPLACED THE OLD SYSTEM (OPEN FIELD)
★The Enclosure system
★Land reclamation
★Mechanization of Agriculture
★Use of Scientific breeding
★Use of fertilizer
★Introduction of crop rotation
★Improvement of infrastructure


★★★ENCLOSURE SYSTEM★★★
★Refers to common lands that own under Peasants, serfdom, and common land, public lands in Britain were buying for rich people like Landlords so as to be commercial land since the Bourgeoisie decided to fenced such land.

HOW ENCLOSURE SYSTEM WAS IMPLEMENTED.
★By act of parlianment
★Agreement btn landloards and serfs
★Elimination of traditional method of Agriculture
★By using Agriculture modern tools
★During land formation
★Land loards decided to buy peaaant's land
★Drainning and Marshal land and swamp land
★Land lords decided to force peasant's land to release to them

REASON FOR ADOPTION OF ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
★To increase food production
★To increase production of raw material
★To solve the problems of land fragmentation
★To reduce congestion on land
★To transform agriculture from subsistence to commercila prod
★To solve the land conflicts during feudalism
★To improve transport in Farming area

DIFFERENT PROCESS OF ENCLOSURE SYSTEM.
★Enclosure common land...enclosure of waste land carried out in 16th Century  and 17th century
★Enclosure of land lords between 1475 to 1570..This was a period since demand of cotton was increase.
★Enclosure of land into a strips..This done by purchasing land from the farmers or owners

IMPACT OF THE INTRODUCTION OF ENCLOSURE SYSTEM IN BRITAIN.
★It led to agrarian revolution
★It create conflicts betweent land lords and peasants.
★Introduction of new crops in Britain
★Massive unempoyent
★Eradicate feudalism
★Peasants became landless
★Developments of Capitalists class
★Rural to urban migration
★Imlrovements of Rural area
★It led to the rise of working class
★Freeing of labours from land
★Migration of people
★Labour were turned to commodities
★Peasants were deprived of right to own land (common land)
★Made capitalist to own both rural and urban economy
★Rise of unemployment due to emergence of landless people.
★Led to the rise of proletarians



★★★AGRARIAN REVOLUTION IN BRITISH★★★.
★Refers to rapid changes which occur in Agriculture sector. In UK occured between 19th and 18th century

★It was transformed from the Old traditional feudal farming system of open field to new system particularly the enclosure system since was effected by changes in Land ownership (tenure) System and in Land usage and application of scientific method like cross breeding, land reclamation, and the use of fertilizer.


PROBLEMS THAT FACED AGRICULTURE. IN EUROPE UNDER THE OPEN FIELD SYSTEM
★Poor land tenure system of land loard of feudal system
★Existence of exploitative feudal law
★Intensive exploitation of lower class
★Use of primitive means of production
★Exsistencs of low production
★Land was acquired mainly by inheitance
★Civil wars and revolts also hit agriculture in Europe


CAUSES OF AGRARIAN REVOLUTION IN BRIATAIN
•Rapid increase of population
•The high demand of wool (cotton)
•Industrial revolution
•Good climatic condition
•Development of infrastructure
★Advancement in science and technology
★Demographic revolution
★Shortage of land
★Availability of internal markets
★Development of merchantilism
★Weakness of feudalism
★Development of financial institution
★Development of tows and Cities

CHANGES THAT TOOK PLACE DURING AGRARIAN REVOLUTION/ FUTURE OF AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
•Crop rotation 
•Introduction of new crops
•The use of improved farm instrument eg iron plough
•Land reclamation 
•Extensive use of time to neutralize soil acidity
•Improvement of animal breeding
•The Agrarian revolution involved the evection of serfs and peasants from Land for pusture
★Privatization of land
★Animal husbandry and breeding
★The use of fertilizer in Agriculture
★Availability of Stong markets
★Planting specil grass
★Enclosure syatem
★Land reclamation
★Crop rotation
★Thebuse of machines in Agriculture

HOW AGRARIAN REVOLUTION / ENCLOSURE SYSTEM LED TO THE CAPITALISM IN EUROPE/ CONTRIBUTION OF AGRARIAN REVOLUTION TO THE RISE OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE.
★Increase of supply of food to the growing population cities including workers in the factories.
★It led to supplies cheap labor to the industry due to population of people.
★Agrarian revolution It also provide markets to the industrial manufactured goods items.
★The changes in agriculture supplied raw materials needed in industries.
★It also marked the end of small scale peasant production.
★It led to availabilitybof raw material
★Developmentbof science and technology
★Demise of feudalism
★Development of internal and External trade
★It led to demographic revolution
★It led to the rise of working class
★Advancement of Agricultute tools
★Growth of towns
★Provisions of Capital
★Development of infrastructure
★Increased of Production of food



★★★COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION★★★
★This was fundamental changes which took place in the commercial sector, where by there was development of internal trade and commercial between 15th Century.

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION.
★Development of mercantilism
★Rise of merchants class
★Development of marine technology
★Demise of feudalism
★Emergence of towns in Europe
★Emergence of proletariat class
★Development of industry
★Availability of raw materials

CONTRIBUTION OF COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION TO THE RISE OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE.
★It led to the dvl of towns
★It led to the dvl of Industry
★It led to the dvl of financil institution
★It led to the dvl of internal and external trade
★It led to the riae of bourgeoisie class
★It led to enclosure system
★It create wide markets
★It led to expansion and consolidation of overseas trade


★★DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION ★★
★Prefers to fundamental changes that occurred in the size of population in Europe between 17 th c and 18 th c

FACTORS FOR THE DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION 

•Improvement of medical sectors
•Early marriages
•Availability of enough food supply
•Political stability
•Better sanitation 

THE ROLE OF DEMOCRAPHIC REVOLUTION IN THE RISE OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE
★The Agrarian revolution
★The rise and growth of towns
★Good economic system
★Prevention, immunization and cure
★Availability of enough food
★Provisions of really markets
★Provisions of cheap labour
★Stimulated inter regional trade
★Development of towns
★Destruction of feudal model of production
★Technology development 
★Development of Financial institution

IMPACT OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALISM IN EUROPE
★Increase of market base
★Provision of cheap labour
★It led to the development of towns
★Stimulate inter regional trade
★Demised of feudalism
★Development of science and Technology
★Contribution of political changes
★Availability of enough armies
★Stimulate production
★Enable availability of market
★Growth of town and cities
Enable availability of Labour supply
★Emergency of working class
★It provided effective and strong capitalists Government with increase of people eg Parliament, Army
★Emergency of researchers and Investor led to the rise of scientific to industrial eg harvesting Machines




★★ THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 1540-1640★★
★Refers to a period that was characterized with major technological changes that took place in European which paved way for the use industrial revolution consequently leading to the rise of capitalism.

★The revolution involved the use of Mathematics experimental methods and practical use of scientific knowledge.

SOME SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTAL/ CAUSES OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION/ THE DISCOVERIES. 
★The Discover of ship making and compass led by Portugal and Spain 17-18 th C
★Discovery of energy production by Newton 1705
★Discovery of Steam Engine by James Watt 1759
★Discovery of new method of weaving and spinning wool and cotton by Samuel 1789
★Discovery of railways by Murdock 1792
★Discover of medical science by Dr. William Harkey 1885
★Discovery of Iron production by smelling iron by using coke
★Discovery of using iron and coal as the major source of power. 
★Discovery of an aeroplane by Wilbour and Orville 1900

MAJOR ASPECT IN THE SCIENTIFIC REV
★Mathematization
★Experimental Method
★Practical Method
★Development of Science Institution

THE ROLE OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
•Improvement of transport systems
•Increase the level of productions
•Development of internal trade
•Destruction of Serfdom
•Rise of free trade
•Rise of capitalist class
•Collapse of cottage industries which replaced by Steam Engine
★It reduce demand of manual labour
★Improvement of Transport sysyem
★Discovery of energy
★Collapse of cottage industries
★Rise of free trade
★Rise of bourgeoisie class


★★★ THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN 1750-1850★★★
★This refers to the sum total of racial or fundamental changes in various sectors of the economy especially industry, transport, banking, and Technology. During this period, new machines for mass production were invested. Large scale Industry replaced courage industry.

★Also Industrial Revolution refer to rapid changes in industrial sector since cottage and hand craft industries were destroyed and introduced machines. This occur in 18 th century.

ORIGIN OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
★It began in British textile Industry when serious of invention transformed the British textile industry to advancement, due to invention and innovation of steam Engine

CHARACTERISTIC OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
★Rapid growth of Industry with modern factories
★Replacement of feudal cottage Industry
★Increase quality and quantity of production
★It led to competion of industries in Europe
★Emergence of new working class movement
★It led to high technology in factory application
★Rapid development of industries cities
★Emergence of free trade
★Replacement of human labour.

FACTORS/ CAUSES THAT CONTRIBUTION THE RISE OF FACTORY SYSTEM (INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM) IN EUROPE
★Development of Internal market
★Development of science and technology
★Agrarian revolution
★Commercial revolution
★Politicla revolution
★Euroean Unification
★Primitive accumulation of capital
★The role of merchantilism
★Exploitation of African resources. 
★Growth of population
★Growth of town
★Monetization of the economy. (Introduction of money)
★The hundred year war btn Britain and France
★Scientific and Technological revolution. 

TRANSITION FROM COTTAGE SYSTEM TO FACTORY SYSTEM

THE FACTORY SYSTEM
★Is the industry production characterized by the confinement of different but related industrial production units in the same industrial plant called the factory.

CHARACTERISTICS OF FACTORY SYSTEM.
★Division of labour
★Replacement of feudal cottage industry
★Rise and growth of induatrial towns
★Poor working and living conditons
★Exploitation of workers
★Application of advancement technology in production.
Establishment of factories near source of fuel.

THE EFFECTS OF FACTORY SYATE (INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION) WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE RISE OF WORKERS CONSCIOUSNESS
★Unemployment
★Low payment of industrial workers
★Poor working condition
★Poor housing conditions
★Long working hour
★Child labour
★Crime and juvenile delinquencies

HOW THE FACTORY SYSTEM FACILITATED WORKER 'S CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS
★Increase number of workers
★It provided better communicatin system
★Emergence of unity and solidarity of workers
★Expansion of towns
★Brought economic crisis in the capitalist system
★Increased of unemployment.
★Environment pollution

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN 1750's
★British was the first country in the world to developed in industry sector in 18th century. 

FIRST PHASE OF INDUSTRIAL 1740-1850)
★Textile milla which manufactured clothes
★Iron mining industries
★Coal mining which produced thermal energy
★Transport and communication Industry that provided the transport raw materials and finished goods. 

REASON FOR BRITISH TO BE FIRST COUNTY IN EUROPE TO INDUSTRIALIZE.
★Growth of internal markets
★Improvement of transport systems
★Non Government interference
★Peace and stability
★Geographical advantage
★Technological Advantage
★International links
★Existence of many colonies 
★Free tade system
★Early political unification
★Earl terminate of feudalism
★The agrarian revolution
★Rapid population
★Good and fair policy of economy
★The role played by enclosure system
★British had early developed in financial institution


WHY BRITAIN PREFERRED TO AS WORKSHOP OF THE WORL
★First of undergo the industrial revolution
★Source of technology and innovation
★Largest colonial empire
★Huge economy
★Leading exporter of industrial goods
★Stable government
★Geographical Advantage
★Good transport systems
★Existence of Fairly developed Banking system
★She monopolice the world market
★Existence of huge ecomy
★Source of technological and technicians

HOW INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION SPREAD FROM BRITAIN / REASON FOR BRITISH DECLINE AS WORK SHOP OF THE WORLD.
★London exhibition 1852
★Independence of British colonies
★Ignore of high education
★British Provide loans to other Nations
★USA independence 1776
★German unification 1870-1879
★Britain forein investment
★The role of Overseas trade
★Scientific research and technology
★Availability of Other Europeans capital
★Industrialization of other European Countries.

EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE.
POSITIVE.
★Demographic revolution
★Development of Industrial towns
★Technological advancement
★Developmentnof free trade policy
★Rise of Labour union
★Development of transport system.
★Political changes
★The rise of socialism
★The rise of European Nationalism
★Abolition of salve trade
★Demise of feudalism.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS
★Environment degradation
★Unemployment
★Increased exploitation
★Creation of new classes
★Destruction of Domestic cottages

EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON AFRICA.
★Abolition of Slave trade.
★Establishment of Evil colonialism
★Destruction of African economy
★Technologycal stagnation
★Development of transport and communication network
★De industrialization
★It led to intensive exploitation of African resources. 




★★★ PLORETARIZATION IN EUROPE (WORKING CLASS IN EUROPE)★★
★ Proletariat refer to the majority industries workers who do not posses any productive forces apart from labour forces since was under control of some like BOURGEOISIE as the employee.

★The working class movement was the workers organization that was formed at the prioritization in Europe.

FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF PLOLETARIATS
★They depend low wages from bourgiousie
★They don't own any productive forces
★They work on poor working conditions
★They are both skilled and non skilled labor
★They are poor social services
★They are always exploited from bourgeoisie 

FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTION TO THE RISE / CAUSES OF THE WORKING CLASS.
★Rise of Industrial cities
★Industrial revolution
★Developmentbof internal trade
★The collapss of feudalism
★Rise of towns
★Riss of capitalism
★Development of new economic sector
★Rise of development of workers movements. 
★Massive unemployment
★Poor working conditions
★Low wages
★Agrarian revolution
★Napoleonic War btn France and Uk
★Lack of Land During Enclosure system

WORKING CLASS MOVEMENTS IN BRITAIN
★Refers to group of workers with the same interest decided to fight so as to get high wages good social services, good working condition from their employers known as bourgeois after industrial revolution especially in Britain.

TYPS OF WORKING CLASS MOVEMENT
★Pre industrial working class 1605s-1750s
★Industrial Working class 1800s-1950s

a) .PRE-INDUSTRIAL WORKING CLASS
★Refers to the working class movement that was existing before the industrial revolution decided to fight their basic right from bourgeoisie

OBJECTIVE OF URBAN-RURAL PROTEST.
★They opposed new machines that made them unemployment
★They decided to regain back their land from land loards
★They decided to restore traditional method of agriculture
★They protest of low wages
★They protest about poor working conditions
★They oppose industrial revolution

b) THE INDUSTRIAL WORKERS MOVEMENT.
★Refers to the workers movement such as Luddism, Chartiam, and new modal trade union that decided to protest against intensive exploitation against Bourgeoisie after Industrial evolution since was not payed high wages, they were working in poor working conditions.

CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL WORKERS MOVEMENTS.
★Poor working conditions
★Law wages
★Shortage of land in rural areas
★The influence of French revolution
★Economic depression during Napoleonic War
★Enclosure system
★The impact of industrial revolution. 


★★★ LUDDISM (1811-1817) ★★★
★Also known as Luddite Movement, this was the first industrial working class underground movement in Britain organised by the leader NED LUDD or King LUDD. 

★Luddites were handicrafts men who waged a campaign of destroying machinery in the textile industries because the introduction of machinery made them lose their jobs. 

★The movement concerted on breaking machines because the members thought that their exploitation and oppression was due to the new invented machine which largely replaced human labour leaving many unemployed hence the need to smash the machines so as to restore old life conditions. 

AIM/ OBJECTIVE OF LUDDISM WORKING CLASS.
★To break the newly inveted machines
★Fight for better working conditions
★Fighting for Better social services
★Fighting FOR Good employment opportunities
★Fighting for discrimination and oppression in working condition
★Fighting for high wages
★Fighting for political and economic rights
★They wanted to restore the old trade
★Some of them need to own land and some factories.

CAUSES OF LUDDISM
★Massive unemployment
★Child and woman labour
★Destruction of Engliash traditional life
★Poor working and leaving conditions
★Economic depression in Britain
★Luddism were against environment pollution
★Hard task of operation machine
★Poor people's need of relief
★Exploitation of workers. 


THE SIGNIFICANCE / ACHIEVEMENT / SUCCESS OF THE LUDDITE MOVEMENT IN BRITAIN.
★Luddism exposure the weeknes of capitalism
★Achievement to get good working condition
★Achieved to get good social services
★Achieved to spread massive awareness of their rights
★Enlightened the workers
★Development of more working class movement eg CHARTISM
★Unity of workers
★Achievement of some rights
★Respectively of Industrial Employee
★Development of Industry sectors


FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE FAILURE OF LUDDISM
★Failure to identify the true enemy
★Illiteracy
★The use of wrong methods
★Absence of strong leadership
★Inadequate funds
★Congregated in Urban areas
★Lack of consistency
★Lack of permanet member
★They failed due to opposition from British Government
★Lack of clear political ideology
★Failed to understood the concept of change
★Lack of National inscope
★Use poor method in their struggle

★★★ THE CHARTISM MOVEMENT 1838-1848 ★★★
★Was the UK working class movement that contain a group of people such as uneducated, educated, artisans since was formed the movement to fight the political, economic and social injustice during the industrial revolution under strong support of the leder known as FERUS O CONNOR, WILLIAM LOVET and HENRY VINCENT with an objective of using Parliamentary means in solving worker's problems and promoting democracy in Britain.

★It was the first working condition class movement to be nationwide in scope and the same at the same time bearing strong political inclinations

★The movement came after industrial capitalism had efficiently developed and the workers had increased in number making their working conditions more horrible. The Charter contain six demands as petition to the Parliament.

SIX DEMAND CONTAINED IN THE CHARTER WERE.
★Universal manhood suffrage.. Since want evel men of 21 years and above must be voted
★Equal electoral districts
★Abolition of property qualification of membera of Parliament
★Vote by secret ballot
★They wanted annual Parliament
★Member of Parliament to be paid salaries and not only allowances so that, even poor men could afford to serve. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARTISM
★They accepted capitalist changes but they were against with injustice of capitalism
★It was political oriented
★They did not give up their demands
★They were good organised
★Had six demands such as social, economic, political
★It applied all means to achieved their goals such as Petitions, strikes, demonstration etc

OBJECTIVE OF CHARTIASM
★They wanted to reform so as to reduce workers exploitation
★They wanted the political powers in Parliament
★They wanted good social services among their societies
★They wanted improvement of good working conditions
★They aim to establishment of unity and solidarity among the workers
★They wanted to show the British government their power
★They also wanted to spread massive awareness of their rights 

FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTION TO THE RISE OF CHARTISM
★Poor law amendment act 1834
★Low wages and poor working condition
★The collapse of National trade Union
★Economic slump of 1837-1838
★Collapse of the Grand National trade union
★Disappointment with reform bill 1882...Since the bill passed in Parliament in order the bourgeoisie to be represented in perliament that other British people
★Increased in indirect taxes
The impact of industrial revolution. 
★The Corn Law of 1815- this was a law which was passed to protect the Agriculture of the landlords against the post war slump. Prohibited importation of food to Britain from other European

•• Reform bill of 1832 ••
*was introduced in British Parliament by Lord JOHN RUSSELL, a member of urban Bourgeoisie. The bill was formed to make some changes in the UK Parliament of which Britain people were not satisfied with their political representations. The bill were favoured Bourgeoisie much in political right

WHY THE CHARTIST WERE NOT HAPPY WITH THE REFORM BILL? 
★Workers were denied the right to participate in the political
★The bill gave Bourgeoisie much political power
★The Bourgeoisie did not represent the workers demand in the Parliament
★The bill dis not extend voting rights to them
★Through the reform bill,The workers was prohibited for demonstation protest and striker
★The bill did not favour the workers to form association

••POOR LAW AMENDMENT ACT 1832••
★In 1601 Queen Elizabet decided to pass the law for assistance the poor societies such as Orphans, the idle, the lazy, and the poor, the law wages earners.

★But in 1832, the Parliament decided to make poor law amendment in order to cut off the poor assistance in the British. Thus the poor lived in hard condition such as famine and hunger,miserly of Good social services etc. Thus the rise of CHARTISM.

HOW THE CHARTIST AFFECTED BY POOR THE POOR LAW AMENDMENT ACT OF 1832?
★The poor were subjected to poor housing facilities
★Separation of familiea to overcom population
★Unemployment
★Child labour
★Workers were subjected to low wages
★Occurance of famine
★Poor were suffering and died. 

TACTICS OF CHARTISM
★Theough presenting Petition to the parlianment ...Used parliament to accept their demands
★Campaign
★Through riots
★Demonstration and stikea
★Use of mass media
★Immense mass meeting



SIGNIFICANCE OF CHARTISM MOVEMENT
★Cooperation
★Formation of trade union
★Development of Development
★Introduction of socialist ideology
★Formation of the Labour party
★Awakened the workers
★Attained some of the demands 
★National in scope
★Provision massive awareness of their rights.
★Introduction of socialist ideology
★Development of Democracy
★Reduced of exploitation among the workers

FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO DECLINE OF CHARTISM
★Strong opposition from British Parliament
★Financial problem
★The rise of puppet leader
★Massive illiterate
★Failed to identify the real enemy
★Different ideology and approach
★Political weak
★Division among the chartist
★Revival of democracy
★Disunity among the members
★Heavy hand of the Government
★Hostility of the capitalist
★Lack of permanent member

SIMILARITIES BTN CHARISM AND LUDDISM
★That came from bad economic condition
★Both had a problem of clear ideoology
★Both need the rights of the workers
★Both used all means to achieved their demands.
★Both was lack permanent member
★Both get strong opposition from British Government
★Both lack Strong leader to mobilze them
★Both lack strong ideology and approach.

DIFFERENCES BTN CHARISM AND LUDDISM
★Chartism had National in scope while Luddism have not
★Chartism have six demands why Luddism have less tha six demands.
★Chartism had contain all groups of people such as Educated and uneducated while Luddism had Massive illiterate
★Chartism did not break Induatrial machines while Luddism breaks industrial machines
★Chartism was organised openly while Luddism were organised secretary
★Chartism were get oppositon from Bourgeoisie and British Government while Luddism get oppositio from Bourgeoisie only. 



★★★ TRADE UNION / NEW MODEL UNION 1850s - 1870s★★★
★Trade union is workers association or institution that combined with professional and skilled workers that decided to fights for increased wages and better working condition like job security, good housing conditions and reducing exploitation of workers by employers

The Union started in Britain after the fall of Chartism. They were more industrial unionist in character than former craft unionism like Luddism and Chartism. 

★These union came to be known as New Model trade Union because they to formed by skilled and professional workers. 

TACTICS OF TRADE UNIONS
★Collective Bargaining
★Use strike and riots
★Court law
★Holding Public meeting
★Formation of Political Parties (LRC) Labour Representive Committee 
★Petitioning to Parliament 

FEATURES OF TRADE UNION /NEW MODEL
★Contained Skilled members
★National in scope
★Use of strikes
★They were Proper leadership
★Good Finacially Sound
★Economic well being of the workers
★They used peceful method to attain their gools
★Leadership was elected
★Membership was permanent
★Payment of membership fees
★They were well organised with strong and clear constitution
★They were permanent office
★They were National in scope

CAUSES OF NEW MODEL TRADE UNIONS
★Disappointed with fall of Chartism
★They need to protect and defended worker's rights
★Need to fight for political and economic rights
★They need to fought for women 's rights at the work
★Emergence of unity and solidarity among them
★Establishment massive awarenes among the workers.

SIGNIFICANCE / ACHIEVEMENT OF TRADE UNIONS IN BRITAIN
★Introduction of unity and solidarity
★Defended the right of the workes
★Formation of the political party (LRC) 1900 Labour Representation commidities
★Fought for womens rights
★Emegency of a class skilled Labour
★Achievement of some rights
★Promoted the culture of non violence (Vurugu)
★Encourage professionalism
★Had permanent member
★Emprovement of workers standard of living
★Growth of solidarity among them
★Foundation of Future working class movement NMU

WEAKNESS OF NEW MODEL TRADE UNION
★Division of workers
★Focus only in economic matters of workers
★Ideological differences
★Financial hardship
★Lack of enough awareness among workers
★The movement depended much on peacefull
★Lack of committed members
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