The Term 'Scramble' means Fighting over something
The scramble for Africa: Is defined as competition among European powers to obtaining colonies in Africa.
Partition of Africa: This was a process of dividing colonies to their respective colonial masters. Partition of Africa was one of the solution that European powers reaches in Berlin Conference after they experienced scramble over African Land.
Scramble for Africa started more in 1870s involving various European powers who were freedy to possess Africa's potential areas.
Ø  National balance of power while other European countries demanded colonies to be equal or similar to Great Britain.
Ø  Prestige (pride) of the nations: The number of colonies controlled by the colonial master/nation was the measure of wealth of a nation.
Ø  Industrial Revolution led to the demand of raw materials from Africa hence competition among the European nations to obtain many colonies as possible in Africa.
Ø  Industrial revolution led to overproduction in Europe hence creating a need to find external markets (outside Europe) thus resulting in competition.
Ø  Change of monopoly system: In Europe few capitalists started to own land while others failed (those who failed to obtain land in Europe they started to find in Africa hence competition).
Ø  Conflicts between capitalists and labourers in Europe while labourers demanded bigger salaries capitalists started to look for cheaper labour thus started economic activities in Africa.
Ø  The growth of European nationalism especially in Germany and Italy in 1870-1871
Ø  This was union of various small European states which were ruled by princes into bigger empires. In Germany the unification was made under OTTO VON BISMARK while in Italy was created by VICTOR EMANNUEL.  This unification made their countries to praise their culture and declared a mission to civilize other cultures hence Germany and Italy rushed to scramble for colonies in Africa.
Ø  Strategic importance of some areas in the African continent, such as :-

Was scrambled for by British and France because of the use of the Suez Canal as a short cut and getaway to the British colony of India and the Indian Ocean where France monopolized sugar production.
South Africa
Because the British and the Dutch exploit Gold and Diamonds.

The Congo basin
Scramble for by Belgium, France and also Portugal because of minerals like Gold and Copper.
Navigable Rivers:  These areas were characterized of fertile soil for production of rubber and High population for creation of market labor
Niger Valley
European powers, French, British and German scrambled for because of navigation, agriculture and high population.

·                     The Berlin conference,
·                     Cultural interference,
·                     Disputes and rivalries,
·                     Occurrence of war among European powers,
·                     Establishment of colonial rule,
·                     Colonial economy and monopoly companies in Africa.



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